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Mitigating off-target effects in CRISPR/Cas9-mediated in vivo gene editing.

08:00 EDT 20th March 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Mitigating off-target effects in CRISPR/Cas9-mediated in vivo gene editing."

The rapid advancement of genome editing technologies has opened up new possibilities in the field of medicine. Nuclease-based techniques such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system are now used to target genetically linked disorders that were previously hard-to-treat. The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing approach wields several advantages over its contemporary editing systems, notably in the ease of component design, implementation and the option of multiplex genome editing. While results from the early phase clinical trials have been encouraging, the small patient population recruited into these trials hinders a conclusive assessment on the safety aspects of the CRISPR/Cas9 therapy. Potential safety concerns include the lack of fidelity in the CRISPR/Cas9 system which may lead to unintended DNA modifications at non-targeted gene loci. This review focuses modifications to the CRISPR/Cas9 components that can mitigate off-target effects in in vitro and preclinical models and its translatability to gene therapy in patient populations.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany)
ISSN: 1432-1440
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Protein components of the CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS for anti-viral defense in ARCHAEA and BACTERIA. These are proteins that carry out a variety of functions during the creation and expansion of the CRISPR ARRAYS, the capture of new CRISPR SPACERS, biogenesis of SMALL INTERFERING RNA (CRISPR or crRNAs), and the targeting and silencing of invading viruses and plasmids. They include DNA HELICASES; RNA-BINDING PROTEINS; ENDONUCLEASES; and RNA and DNA POLYMERASES.

Adaptive antiviral defense mechanisms, in archaea and bacteria, based on DNA repeat arrays called CLUSTERED REGULARLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEATS (CRISPR elements) that function in conjunction with CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (Cas proteins). Several types have been distinguished, including Type I, Type II, and Type III, based on signature motifs of CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.

Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.

The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.

The effects on gene expression that depend on the location of a gene with respect to its neighboring genes and region of chromosome. Stable position effects are sequence dependent. Variegated position effects depend on whether the gene is located in or adjacent to HETEROCHROMATIN or EUCHROMATIN.

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