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The intestinal microbiome plays an important role in human health and disease and fecal materials reflect the microbial activity. Thus, analysis of fecal metabolites provides insight in metabolic interactions between gut microbiota and host organism. In this work, we applied flow injection analysis coupled to Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FIA-FTMS) to identify and quantify lipid species in human fecal samples. Fecal homogenates were subjected to lipid extraction and analyzed by FIA-FTMS. The analysis of different subjects revealed a vast heterogeneity of lipid species abundance. The majority of samples displayed prominent signals of triacylglycerol (TG) and diacylglycerol (DG) species that could be verified by MS2 spectra. Therefore, we focused on the quantification of TG and DG. Method validation included limit of quantification, linearity, evaluation of matrix effects, recovery, and reproducibility. The validation experiments demonstrated the suitability of the method, with exception for approximately 10% of samples, where we observed coefficients of variation higher than 15%. Impaired reproducibility was related to sample inhomogeneity and could not be improved by additional sample preparation steps. Additionally, these experiments demonstrated that compared with aqueous samples, samples containing isopropanol showed higher amounts of DG, presumably due to lysis of bacteria and increased TG lipolysis. These effects were sample-specific and substantiate the high heterogeneity of fecal materials as well as the need for further evaluation of pre-analytic conditions. In summary, FIA-FTMS offers a fast and accurate tool to quantify DG and TG species and is suitable to provide insight into the fecal lipidome and its role in health and disease.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry
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An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 18.104.22.168.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 22.214.171.124.
A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 126.96.36.199.