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Breast cancer risk is reduced by number of pregnancies and breastfeeding duration, however studies of breast changes during or after pregnancy are rare. Breast volume changes - although not linked to breast cancer risk - might be an interesting phenotype in this context for correlative studies, as changes of breast volume vary between pregnant women. Serum receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and its antagonist osteoprotegerin (OPG) were measured prospectively before gestational week 12, and three-dimensional breast volume assessments were performed. A linear regression model including breast volume at the start of pregnancy, RANKL, OPG, and other factors was used to predict breast volume at term. The mean breast volume was 413 mL at gestational week 12, increasing by a mean of 99 mL up to gestational week 40. In addition to body mass index and breast volume at the beginning of pregnancy, RANKL and OPG appeared to influence breast volume with a mean increase by 32 mL (P = 0.04) and a mean reduction by 27 mL (P = 0.04), respectively. Linking the RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway with breast volume changes supports further studies aiming at analysing breast changes during pregnancy with regard to breast cancer risk.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Scientific reports
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A rare, benign, inflammatory breast disease occurring in premenopausal women shortly after a recent pregnancy. The origin is unknown but it is commonly mistaken for malignancy and sometimes associated with BREAST FEEDING and the use of ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
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Obstetrics and gynaecology
Fertility Menopause Obstetrics & Gynaecology Osteoporosis Women's Health Obstetrics and gynaecology comprises the care of the pregnant woman, her unborn child and the management of diseases specific to women. Most consultant...
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