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The homology and evolution of the archosaur ankle is a controversial topic that has been deeply studied using evidence from both extinct and extant taxa. In early stem archosaurs, the astragalus and calcaneum form the ancestral proximal tarsus and a single ossification composes the centrale series. In more recent stem archosaurs, the centrale is incorporated to the proximal row of tarsals laterally contacting the astragalus. This bone is subsequently lost as an independent ossification before the last common ancestor of birds and crocodilians, but the evolutionary fate of this element remains mostly unexplored. Here, we integrate embryological and palaeontological data with morphogeometric analyses to test the hypothesis of loss of the centrale or, alternatively, its incorporation into the archosaurian astragalus. Our results support the latter hypothesis, indicating that the astragalus developed ancestrally from two ossification centres in stem archosaurs and that the supposed tibiale of bird embryos represents a centrale. This conclusion agrees with previous embryological studies that concluded that the tibiale never develops in diapsids.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Scientific reports
This manuscript reviews the role of Vitamin D and its deficiency in pathology of the foot and ankle. Vitamin D is an essential vitamin which targets a number of tissues and organs, and plays an import...
Conventional ankle prophylactics restrict harmful ankle inversion motions that lead to injury. But these existing prophylactics also limit other ankle motions, potentially leading to detriments in fun...
Considerations in the Surgical Management of End-Stage Ankle Arthritis: Commentary on an article by Andrea N. Veljkovic, BComm, MPH, MD, FRCSC, et al.: "Outcomes of Total Ankle Replacement, Arthroscopic Ankle Arthrodesis, and Open Ankle Arthrodesis for Isolated Non-Deformed End-Stage Ankle Arthritis".
There is a high incidence of re-operations after surgery for ankle fractures. According to the Danish Fracture Database (DFDB) the re-operation rate, excluding hardware removal, is almost ...
The main aim of this study was to investigate which strategy can diagnose more accurately syndesmotic instability between an existing index test (ankle CT in neutral position) and two new ...
Evaluate ankle's ultrasound contribution in the accuracy of ankle's diagnosis of traumatic injuries (objectivated by reference's examination : ankle's MRI)
The purpose of this study is to see if the clinical outcome success rate of Total Ankle Arthroplasty is similar to that of Ankle Arthrodesis over a period of 10 years. This will include ...
The purpose of this study is to determine changes in the brain associated with improvement in ankle range of motion following ankle manual therapy procedures in individuals with post-acute...
Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
Evolution at the molecular level of DNA sequences and proteins. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Replacement of the ANKLE JOINT.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Osteoporosis is a disease in which the bones become extremely porous, are subject to fracture, and heal slowly, occurring especially in women following menopause and often leading to curvature of the spine from vertebral collapse. Follow and track&n...