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A genetic basis of congenital isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) can be defined in almost 50% of cases, albeit not necessarily the complete genetic basis. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques have led to the discovery of a great number of loci, each of which has illuminated our understanding of human gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, either in respect of their embryonic development or their neuroendocrine regulation as the "pilot light" of human reproduction. However, because each new gene linked to CHH only seems to underpin another small percentage of total patient cases, we are still far from achieving a comprehensive understanding of the genetic basis of CHH. Patients have generally not benefited from advances in genetics in respect of novel therapies. In most cases, even genetic counselling is limited by issues of apparent variability in expressivity and penetrance that are likely underpinned by oligogenicity in respect of known and unknown genes. Robust genotype-phenotype relationships can generally only be established for individuals who are homozygous, hemizygous or compound heterozygotes for the same gene of variant alleles that are predicted to be deleterious. While certain genes are purely associated with normosmic CHH (nCHH) some purely with the anosmic form (Kallmann syndrome-KS), other genes can be associated with both nCHH and KS-sometimes even within the same kindred. Even though the anticipated genetic overlap between CHH and constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP) has not materialised, previously unanticipated genetic relationships have emerged, comprising conditions of combined (or multiple) pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) and CHARGE syndrome. In this review, we report the current evidence in relation to phenotype and genetic peculiarities regarding 60 genes whose loss-of-function variants can disrupt the central regulation of reproduction at many levels: impairing GnRH neurons migration, differentiation or activation; disrupting neuroendocrine control of GnRH secretion; preventing GnRH neuron migration or function and/or gonadotropin secretion and action.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Human genetics
Normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (NHH) denotes Kallmann syndrome without anosmia or hyposmia. Over the past few years, the complex molecular basis of congenital hypogonadotrophic hyp...
Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism/Kallmann Syndrome (CHH/KS) is a rare condition characterized by gonadotropin deficiency and pubertal failure. Adult height (AH) in patients with CHH/KS has not...
To compare human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH) with respect to successful spermatogenesis and pregnancy outcomes in patients with congenital hypogon...
Two loci (CHD7 and SOX10) underlying Kallmann syndrome (KS) were discovered through clinical and genetic analysis of CHARGE and Waardenburg syndromes, conditions that include congenital anosmia caused...
Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous congenital disease. Symptoms cover a wide spectrum from mild forms to complex phenotypes due to gonadotropi...
Observe the therapeutic efficacy of human menopausal gonadotropin combining with human chorionic gonadotropin in adolescent boys with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
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Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
A genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by hypothalamic GNRH deficiency and OLFACTORY NERVE defects. It is characterized by congenital HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM and ANOSMIA, possibly with additional midline defects. It can be transmitted as an X-linked (GENETIC DISEASES, X-LINKED), an autosomal dominant, or an autosomal recessive trait.
A phenotypic outcome (physical characteristic or disease predisposition) that is determined by more than one gene. Polygenic refers to those determined by many genes, while oligogenic refers to those determined by a few genes.
An autosomal recessive syndrome occurring principally in females, characterized by the presence of reticulated, atrophic, hyperpigmented, telangiectatic cutaneous plaques, often accompanied by juvenile cataracts, saddle nose, congenital bone defects, disturbances in the growth of HAIR; NAILS; and TEETH; and HYPOGONADISM.
Peculiarities associated with the internal structure, form, topology, or architecture of organisms that distinguishes them from others of the same species or group.
Congenital conditions are those which are present from birth. They include structural deformities or loss of function in organs such as the <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->heart, gut or skeletal system. They can be corrected by <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->surgery, m...
Endocrine disorders are grouped into two categories: hormone imbalance - when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect...