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Skeletal muscle is one of the largest functional tissues in the human body; it is highly plastic and responds dramatically to anabolic and catabolic stimuli, including weight training and malnutrition, respectively. Excessive loss of muscle mass, or atrophy, is a common symptom of many disease states with severe impacts on prognosis and quality of life. TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its cognate receptor, fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) are an emerging cytokine signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of muscle atrophy. Upregulation of TWEAK and Fn14 has been described in a number of atrophic and injured muscle states; however, it remains unclear whether they are contributing to the degenerative or regenerative aspect of muscle insults. The current review focuses on the expression and apparent downstream outcomes of both TWEAK and Fn14 in a range of catabolic and anabolic muscle models. Apparent changes in the signaling outcomes of TWEAK-Fn14 activation dependent on the relative expression of both the ligand and the receptor are discussed as a potential source of divergent TWEAK-Fn14 downstream effects. This review proposes both a physiological and pathological model of TWEAK-Fn14 signaling. Further research is needed on the switch between these states to develop therapeutic interventions for this pathway.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
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Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
A proteolytically-cleaved membrane glycoprotein and member of the TNF superfamily that is highly expressed in a variety of tissues including heart, pancreas, brain, and peripheral blood lymphocytes. The secreted extracellular form is a weak inducer of APOPTOSIS for some cell types and a ligand for the FN14 RECEPTOR. It mediates activation of NF-KAPPA-B and promotes ANGIOGENESIS and proliferation of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, as well as expression of cytokines involved in INFLAMMATION.
Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
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Cytokine Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)
TNF is a compound that is classified as a cytokine which plays a central role in the cellular mechanisms of apoptosis or cell death. However, there are a number of different kinds of TNF, just under twenty, but the family of molecules have very similar a...