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Increasing attention has been focused on the removal of micropollutants from contaminated drinking source water. However, low rejection efficiency and membrane fouling still inhibit further application of nanofiltration membrane in this field. Interesting results were found that the residual hydrolyzed-aluminum nanoparticles from supernatant after coagulation and sedimentation strongly improved the nanofiltration performance for micropollutant removal. A simulated raw water containing humic acids, micropollutants and kaolinite clay was employed to investigate the factors of water matrix affecting the nanoparticle-enhanced nanofiltration for micropollutant removal. Results of experiments showed that these hydrolyzed-aluminum nanoparticles easily induced the aggregation of bisphenol-A (BPA) and humic acids in the supernatant. The enhancement of BPA removal was mainly attributed to the repelling interaction between the Al-BPA-DOC complexity and in situ-modified membrane surface during nanofiltration. 'This in situ surface modification by the hydrolyzed-aluminum nanoparticles improved membrane hydrophilicity, roughness and positively-charging capacity. For the treatment of River Songhua water spiked with micropollutant, the percentage removal of BPA was improved to be 88.5%, much more than the case of single nanofiltration without coagulation (60.7%). Meanwhile, the membrane fouling was reduced by 2.13 times than the case of single nanofiltration without the dynamically deposited-layer of nanoparticles. This in situ modification of nanofiltration membrane by hydrolyzed-aluminum nanoparticles achieved excellent removal efficiency for micropollutants from River Songhua water background.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
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Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.
The attainment or process of attaining a new level of performance or quality.
An enzyme present in the mitochondrial membrane of animals and in microorganisms. In the presence of energy (ATP) it catalyzes reversibly the reduction of NAD by NADPH to yield NADP and NADH. This reaction permits the utilization of the reducing properties of NADPH by the respiratory chain and in the reverse direction it allows the reduction of NADP for biosynthetic purposes. EC 220.127.116.11.
The removal of LEUKOCYTES from BLOOD to reduce BLOOD TRANSFUSION reactions and lower the chance of transmitting VIRUSES. This may be performed by FILTRATION or by CYTAPHERESIS.
Surgical removal of the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.