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Human exposure to antibiotic residues in drinking water has not been well evaluated. This study is the first attempt to simultaneously and efficiently identify and quantify 92 antibiotic residues in filtered tap water (multistage filtration at the tap) (n = 36) collected from 10 areas of a large city in southern China, 10 Chinese brands of bottled/barreled water (n = 30) and six foreign brands of bottled water (n = 18) obtained from the Chinese market. The average and median concentrations of all the detected antibiotic compounds was 182 and 92 ng/L in filtered tap water, 180 and 105 ng/L in Chinese brands of bottled/barreled water, and 666 and 146 ng/L in foreign brands of bottled water, respectively. A total of 58 antibiotics were detected in the filtered tap water, and 45 and 36 antibiotics were detected in the Chinese and foreign brands of bottled water, respectively. More types of antibiotics were detected in Chinese brands of bottled water than in the other bottled waters. In addition, Chinese waters had high roxithromycin concentrations, while the foreign brands of bottled water had high concentrations of dicloxacillin. The average and median values of the estimated overall daily intake of all the detected antibiotics were 4.3 and 2.3 ng/kg/day when only filtered tap water was drunk, 4.0 and 2.5 ng/kg/day when Chinese brands of bottled water was drunk, and 16.0 and 4.9 ng/kg/day when foreign brands of bottled water was drunk. Further study is needed to develop a more comprehensive estimation of human exposure to antibiotic residues in the environment and a more in-depth understanding of the potential hazard of ingested antibiotic residues to the human microbiome.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
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A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)
The exposure to potentially harmful factors such as trace heavy metals, chemicals, radiation, or toxins due to FOOD CONTAMINATION including DRINKING WATER contamination.
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.