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Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are increasingly common in aquatic environments. This can lead to higher concentrations of cyanotoxins, such as microcystins (MCs), posing a great risk to diverse organisms, including humans. MCs are among the most commonly reported cyanotoxins in freshwater environments worldwide, where they may have different fates. MCs can adsorb to suspended particles into the water column and deposit onto the sediment where they can be affected by physical factors (e.g. winds in shallow lakes causing sediment resuspension) or biological factors (e.g. biodegradation). Here we focused on the conditions of a coastal shallow lagoon contaminated by MCs aiming to estimate the return of pre-existing MCs from the sediment to the water column, to evaluate the adsorption of dissolved MC-LR to the sediment and to verify the occurrence of biodegradation. In experiments with sediment, desorption and adsorption were tested under the influence of temperature, pH and aeration, reproducing conditions observed in the lagoon. MC-desorption was not detected under the tested conditions. Spiking MC-LR into lagoon water samples in the presence of sediment resulted in a 50 % reduction of soluble MC-LR concentration in control conditions (25 °C, pH 8.0, no aeration). Increasing temperature (45 °C) or introducing aeration further stimulated MC-LR removal from the water. Biodegradation was observed in sediment samples and interstitial water (even with tetracycline). The composition of the bacterial community differed in sediment and interstitial water: major phyla were Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and OP3. From the assigned OTUs, we identified genera already described as MC degrading bacteria. Thus, the sediment is a key factor influencing the fate of MC-LR in this shallow coastal lake contributing to stable adsorption and biodegradation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Microbiological research
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That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.
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