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During fossil oil extraction, a complex water stream known as produced water (PW), is co-extracted. Membrane treatment makes PW re-use possible, but fouling and oil permeation remain major challenges. In this work, membrane fouling and oil retention of Synthetic PW stabilized with a cationic, anionic, zwitterionic or nonionic surfactant, were studied at various surfactant and salt concentrations. We discuss our results in the framework of the Young-Laplace (YL) equation, which predicts for a given membrane, pressure and oil-membrane contact angle, a critical interfacial tension (IFT) below which oil permeation should occur. We observe such a transition from high to low oil retention with decreasing IFT for the anionic (SDS), cationic (CTAB) and non-ionic (TX) surfactant, but at significantly higher critical IFTs than predicted by YL. On the other side, for the zwitterionic DDAPS we do not observe a drop in oil retention, even at the lowest IFT. The discrepancy between our findings and the critical IFT predicted by YL can be explained by the difference between the measured contact angle and the effective contact angle at the wall of the membrane pores. This leads to a surfactant-dependent critical IFT. Additionally, our results point out that zwitterionic surfactants even at the lowest IFT did not present a critical IFT and exhibited low fouling and low oil permeation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of colloid and interface science
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A pulmonary surfactant associated protein that plays a role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. It is a membrane-bound protein that constitutes 1-2% of the pulmonary surfactant mass. Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein C is one of the most hydrophobic peptides yet isolated and contains an alpha-helical domain with a central poly-valine segment that binds to phospholipid bilayers.
A pulmonary surfactant associated-protein that plays an essential role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Inherited deficiency of pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B is one cause of RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that contains both a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment and interfacial-binding region specific for PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLINE-containing membranes. This enzyme group may play a role in the release of ARACHIDONIC ACID from phospholipid membranes.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight 28.09.