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The transformation of macrophages to foam cells is a critical component in atherosclerotic lesion formation. Maslinic acid (MA), a novel natural pentacyclic triterpene, has cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. It is hypothesized that MA can suppress monocyte recruitment to endothelial cells and inhibit macrophage foam cells formation. Previous study shows that MA inhibits inflammatory effects induced by sPLA2-IIA, including foam cells formation. This study elucidates the regulatory effect of MA in monocyte recruitment, macrophage lipid accumulation and cholesterol efflux. Our findings demonstrate that MA inhibits THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVEC cells in a TNFα-dependent and independent manner, but it induces trans-endothelial migration marginally at low concentration. MA down-regulates both gene and protein expression on VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in HUVECs. We further showed that MA suppresses macrophage foam cells formation, as indicated from the Oil-Red-O staining and flow cytometric analysis of intracellular lipids accumulation. The effects observed may be attributed to the antioxidant properties of MA where it was shown to suppress CuSO-induced lipid peroxidation. MA inhibits scavenger receptors SR-A and CD36 expression while enhancing cholesterol efflux. MA enhances cholesterol efflux transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 genes expression marginally without inducing its protein expression. In this study, MA was shown to target important steps that contribute to foam cell formation, including its ability in reducing monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells and LDL peroxidation, down-regulating scavenger receptors expression as well as enhancing cholesterol efflux, which might be of great importance in the context of atherosclerosis prevention and treatment.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Vascular pharmacology
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An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
Formation of MYELOID CELLS from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via MYELOID STEM CELLS. Myelopoiesis generally refers to the production of leukocytes in blood, such as MONOCYTES and GRANULOCYTES. This process also produces precursor cells for MACROPHAGE and DENDRITIC CELLS found in the lymphoid tissue.
The parent cells that give rise to both cells of the GRANULOCYTE lineage and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
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