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Muscle is typically modelled using a lump sum idealization, scaling a single fascicle to represent the entire muscle. However, fascicles within a muscle have unique orientations, which could result in forces exerted not only in the axis running along the tendon, but also the two perpendicular axes, describing the muscle's width and depth. The purpose of this research was to develop a geometric-based model of the soleus, medial gastrocnemius, and lateral gastrocnemius as distributed force systems which can predict three-dimensional forces. Measurements were taken from the triceps surae in two human cadavers (80 and 85 years old). These models predicted muscle volumes and ankle plantar flexor moments that were realistic considering the age of the cadavers. Small differences were observed in calcaneal tendon force and moment for the distributed force models compared to modelling muscle force using a lump sum idealization. The major finding of the distributed force models was that forces were present in the axes corresponding to the muscle's length, width, and depth. The forces in the width and depth axes may be relevant for evaluating how muscle shape changes during contraction, as well as to investigate stress-strain patterns along the muscle's proximal and distal aponeuroses.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of theoretical biology
The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the distribution of force between the three heads of the triceps surae differs between people with Achilles tendinopathy and controls. We also ai...
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The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
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The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
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