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Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most important livestock tick, causing economical losses especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Pour-on formulations using synthetic chemicals, remain the most farmer friendly conventional form of tick control method. Misuse of acaricides can lead to the emergence of resistance, residual chemicals in animal products, the poisoning of vertebrates and environment contamination. Despite the increase in the use of pour-on formulations, little is known regarding the therapeutic and residual efficacy of these products after the treated animals are exposed to rainfall. Moreover, information is scanty on whether efficacy is modulated by different levels of tick burden. Three studies were conducted. In the two first experiments, we evaluated the therapeutic and residual efficacies of commercial pour-on products (fluazuron 2.5 mg/kg and fipronil 1.0 mg/kg, respectively) on cattle naturally infested with R. (B.) microplus under the condition of simulated rainfall. In the third study, we investigated whether tick burden affects the efficacy of the drugs used a chemical control method involving three different formulations (Day 0: cypermethrin 5.0 mg/kg + chlorpyrifos 7.0 mg/kg + citronellal 0.5 mg/kg; Day 7: fluazuron 3.0 mg/kg + abamectin 0.5 mg/kg and Day 56: fipronil 1.0 mg/kg + fluazuron 3.0 mg/kg). Tick counts were performed on different days to assess efficacy. It was observed that the residual efficacy of the commercial formulations was lower on animals that received simulated rain. In addition, therapeutic and residual efficacies of the products were reduced in the group of animals with a high tick burden of R. (B.) microplus. In conclusion, rainfall decreases the efficacy of acaricides. Also, the tick burden must be considered when selecting a pour-on formulation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Preventive veterinary medicine
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Measure of the burden of disease using the disability-adjusted-life-year (DALY). This time-based measure combines years of life lost due to premature mortality and years of life lost due to time lived in states of less than full health. The metric was developed to assess the burden of disease consistently across diseases, risk factors and regions.
Chemical, biological, or medical measures designed to prevent the spread of ticks or the concomitant infestations which result in tick-borne diseases. It includes the veterinary as well as the public health aspects of tick and mite control.
A febrile illness characterized by chills, aches, vomiting, leukopenia, and sometimes encephalitis. It is caused by the COLORADO TICK FEVER VIRUS, a reovirus transmitted by the tick Dermacentor andersoni.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to reduce the burden of human illness and dysfunction from environmental causes by, defining how environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and age interact to affect an individual's health. It was established in 1969.
A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.
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