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Bioelectrochemical system (BESs) has been applied to treat refractory wastewaters such as phenolic wastewater since microbial anodic oxidation driven by electroactive bacteria is believed to enhance decomposition of organic matters. Considering that most of electroactive bacteria are sensitive to phenol and cannot utilize it directly, it was assumed that fermentative bacteria and electroactive bacteria in mixed-culture BESs cooperated to degrade phenol. To clarify this assumption, a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) for phenol degradation with Cr(VI)-reduction bio-cathode was developed in this study. Results showed that phenol served as anodic electron donor was more efficient than acetate for cathodic reduction of Cr(VI) since the slow release of acetate from phenol degradation with fermentative bacteria might make full use of acetate as electron donor for anodic oxidation. The production of quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules were higher in phenolic anolyte, confirming the syntrophic metabolism among phenol-degrading bacteria and electroactive bacteria. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) test and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated that phenolic anolyte and anodic sludge had higher electron transfer ability due to enhanced bio-electrochemisty processes in syntrophic metabolism.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 220.127.116.11.
An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein. The enzyme also forms pyruvate from D-tyrosine, L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, L-serine, and D-serine, although at a slower rate. EC 18.104.22.168.
The yellowish discoloration of connective tissue due to deposition of HOMOGENTISIC ACID (a brown-black pigment). This is due to defects in the metabolism of PHENYLALANINE and TYROSINE. Ochronosis occurs in ALKAPTONURIA, but has also been associated with exposure to certain chemicals (e.g., PHENOL, trinitrophenol, BENZENE DERIVATIVES).
A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.