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The discovery of the TLRs family and more precisely its functions opened a variety of gates to modulate immunological host responses. TLRs 7/8 are located in the endosomal compartment and activate a specific signaling pathway in a MyD88-dependant manner. According to their involvement into various autoimmune, inflammatory and malignant diseases, researchers have designed diverse TLRs 7/8 ligands able to boost or block the inherent signal transduction. These modulators are often small synthetic compounds and most act as agonists and to a much lesser extent as antagonists. Some of them have reached preclinical and clinical trials, and only one has been approved by the FDA and EMA, imiquimod. The key to the success of these modulators probably lies in their combination with other therapies as recently demonstrated. We gather in this review more than 360 scientific publications, reviews and patents, relating the extensive work carried out by researchers on the design of TLRs 7/8 modulators, which are classified firstly by their biological activities (agonist or antagonist) and then by their chemical structures, which total syntheses are not discussed here. This review also reports about 90 clinical cases, thereby showing the biological interest of these modulators in multiple pathologies.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: European journal of medicinal chemistry
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A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
A narcotic antagonist with some agonist properties. It is an antagonist at mu opioid receptors and an agonist at kappa opioid receptors. Given alone it produces a broad spectrum of unpleasant effects and it is considered to be clinically obsolete.
The first mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic to be marketed. It is an agonist at the kappa and sigma opioid receptors and has a weak antagonist action at the mu receptor. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1991, p97)
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A narcotic used as a pain medication. It appears to be an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and an antagonist or partial agonist at mu opioid receptors.
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Clinical trials are a set of procedures in medical research conducted to allow safety (or more specifically, information about adverse drug reactions and adverse effects of other treatments) and efficacy data to be collected for health interventions (e.g...