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Plants are known to remediate dyes, metals and emerging contaminants from wastewaters. Vetiveria zizanioides, a perennial bunchgrass showed removal of Remazol Red (RR, 100 mg/L) up to 93% within 40 h. Root and shoot tissues of V. zizanioides revealed induction in dye degrading enzymes viz. lignin peroxidase by 2.28 and 1.43, veratryl alcohol oxidase 2.72 and 1.60, laccase 6.15 and 3.55, and azo reductase 2.17 and 2.65-fold, respectively, during RR decolorization. Substantial increase was observed in the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids in the plant leaves during treatment. Anatomical studies of roots, HPLC and GC-MS analysis of metabolites, and phytotoxicity assessment confirmed phytotransformation of RR into nontoxic metabolites. Floating phytobed with V. zizanioides treated textile wastewater (400 L) effectively and reduced ADMI, COD, BOD, TDS, and TSS by 74, 74, 81, 66 and 47%, respectively within 72 h. In-situ treatment of textile wastewater for 5 days in constructed furrows planted with semiaquatic plants, V. zizanioides, Ipomoea aquatica and its consortium-VI decreased ADMI by 68, 61 and 76%, COD by 75, 74 and 79%, BOD by 73, 71 and 84%, TDS by 77, 75 and 83%, and TSS by 34, 31 and 51%, respectively. This treatment was also useful to remove arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead from wastewater. Overall observation suggests wise strategy to use this plantation in the furrows of high rate transpiration system and phytobeds in deep water for textile wastewater treatment.
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