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Effects of temperature on metabolism/biotransformation and toxicokinetics to lizards are significant, but frequently ignored in toxicology studies. Beta-cyfluthrin (BC) is a pyrethroid insecticide and has been widely used globally. The study aimed to understand the diverse adverse effects of BC to the lizard (Eremias argus) at different temperature regimes. We carried out a single oral BC treatment (20 mg/kg bw) for toxicokinetic study and a 7-day BC (10 mg/kg bw) gavage to look at toxicology by monitoring changes in the biomarkers HSP70, SOD, MDA, CarE, UDPGT, GST, cyp genes, and other metabolic responses. Results showed that BC was lethal to lizards, showing oxidative damages in the liver at ambient temperature (25 °C). Heat stress (35 °C) could exacerbate the oxidative damage (MDA increased) caused by BC, due to the disorder of the antioxidant defense system. The result of tissue distribution and toxicokinetic study also showed that temperature affected the BC biotransformation in lizards. The biotransformation of BC maybe relates to the activation of CarE and UDGPT by heat stress. However, the cyp system and GST didn't increase under BC or/and heat treatments. H-NMR metabolomics analysis showed that BC or/and heat stress interfered with energy and amino acid metabolism of the liver. Unlike acute lethal toxicity, the occurrence of the BC and heat stresses has detrimental effects on lizard individuals and populations on sub-lethal levels. Our results indicate that pollution and global warming (or some other extremely weather) may generate significant and harmful effects on lizards.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental research
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