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Motile cilia/flagella are essential for swimming and generating extracellular fluid flow in eukaryotes. Motile cilia harbor a 9+2 arrangement consisting of nine doublet microtubules with dynein arms at the periphery and a pair of singlet microtubules at the center (central pair). In the central system, the radial spoke has a T-shaped architecture and regulates the motility and motion pattern of cilia. Recent cryoelectron tomography data reveal three types of radial spokes (RS1, RS2, and RS3) in the 96 nm axoneme repeat unit; however, the molecular composition of the third radial spoke, RS3 is unknown. In human pathology, it is well known mutation of the radial spoke head-related genes causes primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) including respiratory defect and infertility. Here, we describe the role of the primary ciliary dyskinesia protein Rsph4a in the mouse motile cilia. Cryoelectron tomography reveals that the mouse trachea cilia harbor three types of radial spoke as with the other vertebrates and that all triplet spoke heads are lacking in the trachea cilia of Rsph4a-deficient mice. Furthermore, observation of ciliary movement and immunofluorescence analysis indicates that Rsph4a contributes to the generation of the planar beating of motile cilia by building the distal architecture of radial spokes in the trachea, the ependymal tissues, and the oviduct. Although detailed mechanism of RSs assembly remains unknown, our results suggest Rsph4a is a generic component of radial spoke heads, and could explain the severe phenotype of human PCD patients with RSPH4A mutation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS genetics
Complex radial head fracture and elbow instability can be treated with radial head arthroplasty. Good clinical results have been described after this surgical treatment. However, the revision and comp...
The aim of the study was to analyze the functional and radiological outcome of Monteggia-like lesions in adults with unreconstructible fracture of the radial head and treatment with radial head arthro...
Forearm deformity occurs in one third of patients with multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE). Conservative and surgical treatment are aimed at preventing radial head subluxation and/or dislocation. Disl...
Isolated radial head subluxation without fracture, commonly referred to as "nursemaid's elbow," is one of the most common pediatric upper extremity injuries. Radial head dislocation without an assoc...
The objective of this study is to assess the type, frequency and severity of complications after the implantation of the modular monopolar radial head prosthesis.
The purpose of this study is to determine if the Ascension PyroCarbon Radial Head is safe and effective in the treatment of arthritis, fractures, symptoms from radial head resections, and ...
Fractures of the radial head are among the most common fractures in the elbow and represent one-third of all elbow fractures.This retrospective cohort study was performed between 2004 and ...
The purpose of this prospective clinical data collection is to document the performance and clinical outcomes of the ExploR® Modular Radial Head. This data collection effort will document...
The purpose of this prospective clinical data collection is to document the performance and clinical outcomes of the ExploR Modular Radial Head.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of physical therapy as part of the non-operative treatment of radial head fractures.There is currently no data to support the use of...
Disease involving the RADIAL NERVE. Clinical features include weakness of elbow extension, elbow flexion, supination of the forearm, wrist and finger extension, and thumb abduction. Sensation may be impaired over regions of the dorsal forearm. Common sites of compression or traumatic injury include the AXILLA and radial groove of the HUMERUS.
A procedure to surgically correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS by cutting radial slits into the CORNEA to change its refractive properties.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
The condition of carrying TRIPLETS simultaneously.
Asthma COPD Cystic Fibrosis Pneumonia Pulmonary Medicine Respiratory Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are any infection of the sinuses, throat, airways or lungs. They're usually caused by viruses, but they can also ...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...