Roles of the BRD4 short isoform in phase separation and active gene transcription.

08:00 EDT 16th March 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Roles of the BRD4 short isoform in phase separation and active gene transcription."

BRD4, a major tandem-bromodomain-containing transcription regulator, has two isoforms. The long isoform (BRD4L) has an extended C terminus that binds transcription cofactors, while the short isoform (BRD4S) lacks this C-terminal extension. Unlike BRD4L, the role of BRD4S in gene transcription remains unclear. Here, we report that, in human cancer cells, BRD4S forms nuclear puncta that possess liquid-like properties and that colocalize with BRD4L, MED1 and sites of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation. BRD4 puncta are correlated with BRD4S but not BRD4L expression levels. BRD4S knockdown reduces BRD4S condensation, and ectopic expression promotes puncta formation and target gene transcription. BRD4S nuclear condensation is mediated by its intrinsically disordered regions and binding of its bromodomains to DNA and acetylated chromatin, respectively, and BRD4S phosphorylation diminishes BRD4 condensation. Our study illuminates a previously unappreciated role of BRD4S in organizing chromatin and transcription factors through phase separation to sustain gene transcription in chromatin for cancer cell proliferation.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Nature structural & molecular biology
ISSN: 1545-9985


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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A homeodomain protein that is highly expressed in the nuclei of skeletal muscle, bone marrow, and osteogenic cells and has critical roles in growth and development. Its gene resides within PSEUDOAUTOSOMAL REGION 1 of X and Y chromosomes and mutations are associated with several growth disorders including LERI-WEIL SYNDROME; LANGER MESOMELIC DYSPLASIA; and SHORT STATURE, IDIOPATHIC, X-LINKED.

The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).

The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.

Functionalization of exogenous substances to prepare them for conjugation in PHASE II DETOXIFICATION. Phase I enzymes include CYTOCHROME P450 enzymes and some OXIDOREDUCTASES. Excess induction of phase I over phase II detoxification leads to higher levels of FREE RADICALS that can induce CANCER and other cell damage. Induction or antagonism of phase I detoxication is the basis of a number of DRUG INTERACTIONS.

The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.

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