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Metoidioplasty denotes the creation of a neophallus out of the hormonally hypertrophied clitoris. Construction of an esthetically acceptable male-like genitalia while enabling micturition in standing position are the primary goals. Herein, we aim to review the literature regarding masculinizing gender-affirming genital surgery in the form of metoidioplasty, focusing on the steps related to urethral lengthening and reconstruction, and describe the authors' preferred surgical technique. Clitoral release, division of the urethral plate, native urethral lengthening with anterior vaginal wall flap, and neourethral tubularization using a combination of buccal mucosa graft and labia minora flap(s) seem to provide the best result in terms of urinary outcomes. This is reflected in a greater urethral length, higher probability of standing micturition, and lower incidence of fistula. Urethral complications, which can be encountered in up to 15% of the patients, may necessitate additional procedures. Some of the studies have reported successful penetrative intercourse following metoidioplasty. Case series about different metoidioplasty techniques do not allow head-to-head comparison due to non-standardized reporting and outcome assessment. Metoidioplasty can be offered to transgender men with sufficiently hypertrophied clitoris who wish to avoid a complicated, multistage, flap-based total phalloplasty, or for those individuals considering phalloplasty at a later date.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of impotence research
To determine the urologic complications and lower urinary tract functions after genital gender affirming surgery (gGAS) with urethral lengthening (UL) in transmen.
Some transgender men express the wish to undergo genital gender-affirming surgery. Metoidioplasty and phalloplasty are procedures that are performed to construct a neophallus. Genital gender-affirming...
In spite of the multiple benefits of gender affirming surgery for treatment of gender dypshoria, research shows that barriers to care still exist. Third-party payers play a pivotal role in enabling ac...
Despite the multiple benefits of gender-affirming surgery for treatment of gender dysphoria, research shows that barriers to care still exist. Third-party payers play a pivotal role in enabling access...
Gender-affirming surgeries expand the options for physical transition among transgender patients, those whose gender identity is incongruent with the sex assigned to them at birth. Growing medical ins...
The trial studies the efficacy of subcutaneous (SQ) testosterone compared to intramuscular (IM) testosterone therapy during the first 6 months of pubertal induction in transgender male ado...
Prospective trial in gender dysphoric patients who undergo gender-affirming hormone therapy, aiming to investigate psychological, biological and behavioural consequences of hormonal therap...
Trans (i.e., transgender, transsexual) individuals experience a gender that does not match their sex assigned at birth (Gender Incongruence), which can lead to a distress called gender dys...
The investigators hypothesize that masculinizing top surgery (e.g., mastectomy and chest masculinization) leads to an improvement in self-report chest dysphoria, gender dysphoria, and gend...
In this study, investigators plan to evaluate the cardiometabolic effects of initiating gender-affirming hormone therapy among transgender women with HIV. As part of this study, participan...
A marked difference between the individual’s expressed/experienced gender and the gender others would assign him or her, and it must continue for at least six months. (from DSM-5)
Abnormalities in the development of the GONADS, the genital tracts, the external GENITALIA, and gender-specific behavior.
Individuals including lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, gender non-conforming people, and other populations whose sexual orientation or GENDER IDENTITY and reproductive development is considered outside cultural, societal, or physiological norms.
A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.
Cancer or tumors of the URETHRA. Benign epithelial tumors of the urethra usually consist of squamous and transitional cells. Primary urethral carcinomas are rare and typically of squamous cells. Urethral carcinoma is the only urological malignancy that is more common in females than in males.
Surgery is a technology consisting of a physical intervention on tissues. All forms of surgery are considered invasive procedures; so-called "noninvasive surgery" usually refers to an excision that does not penetrate the structure being exci...
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Erectile Dysfunction Urology Urology is the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract and diseases that affect it. Examples include urethritis, urethrostenosis and incontinence. Urology is a su...