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piRNA-independent function of PIWIL1 as a co-activator for anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome to drive pancreatic cancer metastasis.

08:00 EDT 16th March 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "piRNA-independent function of PIWIL1 as a co-activator for anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome to drive pancreatic cancer metastasis."

Piwi proteins are normally restricted in germ cells to suppress transposons through associations with Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), but they are also frequently activated in many types of human cancers. A great puzzle is the lack of significant induction of corresponding piRNAs in cancer cells, as we document here in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs), which implies that such germline-specific proteins are somehow hijacked to promote tumorigenesis through a different mode of action. Here, we show that in the absence of piRNAs, human PIWIL1 in PDAC functions as an oncoprotein by activating the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) E3 complex, which then targets a critical cell adhesion-related protein, Pinin, to enhance PDAC metastasis. This is in contrast to piRNA-dependent PIWIL1 ubiquitination and removal by APC/C during late spermiogenesis. These findings unveil a piRNA-dependent mechanism to switch PIWIL1 from a substrate in spermatids to a co-activator of APC/C in human cancer cells.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Nature cell biology
ISSN: 1476-4679
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to provide structural support for the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules of the complex. Apc4, along with Apc5, tethers the tetratricopeptide-coactivator binding subcomplex to the main structural subunit, Apc1.

A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to provide structural support for the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules of the complex. Apc5, along with Apc4, tethers the tetratricopeptide-coactivator binding subcomplex to the main structural subunit, Apc1.

An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.

Apc10 is necessary for coactivator-dependent substrate recognition by the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It binds the Apc2 subunit, which is a part of the catalytic core, and interacts with coactivators Cdh1 or Cdc20 to recruit substrates to the complex.

The largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. It acts primarily as a scaffold for the proper organization and arrangement of subunits. The C-terminal region of Apc1 contains a series of tandem amino acid repeats that are also seen in the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, and may assist with forming and stabilizing protein-protein interactions.

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