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Evolutionary studies over the last several decades have invoked fitness trade-offs to explain why species prefer some environments to others. However, the effects of population size on trade-offs and ecological specialization remain largely unknown. To complicate matters, trade-offs themselves have been visualized in multiple ways in the literature. Thus, it is not clear how population size can affect the various aspects of trade-offs. To address these issues, we conducted experimental evolution with Escherichia coli populations of two different sizes in two nutritionally limited environments, and studied fitness trade-offs from three different perspectives. We found that larger populations evolved greater fitness trade-offs, regardless of how trade-offs are conceptualized. Moreover, although larger populations adapted more to their selection conditions, they also became more maladapted to other environments, ultimately paying heavier costs of adaptation. To enhance the generalizability of our results, we further investigated the evolution of ecological specialization across six different environmental pairs, and found that larger populations specialized more frequently and evolved consistently steeper reaction norms of fitness. This is the first study to demonstrate a relationship between population size and fitness trade-offs, and the results are important in understanding the population genetics of ecological specialization and vulnerability to environmental changes.
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Bacterial cells have a limited number of resources that can be allocated for gene expression. The intracellular competition for these resources has an impact on the cell physiology. Bacteria have evol...
Proteins are subject to various conflicting forces that trade-off against each other. For example, during folding, the protein achieves lower enthalpy at the cost of lower entropy. Similarly, the trad...
Consumers regularly experience trade-offs in their ability to find, handle, and digest different resources. Evolutionary ecologists recognized the significance of this observation for the evolution an...
Local adaptation directs populations towards environment-specific fitness maxima through acquisition of positively selected traits. However, rapid environmental changes can identify hidden fitness tra...
COMPARE (COMparing treatment options for ProstAte cancer) aimed to evaluate and quantify the trade-offs patients make between different aspects of active surveillance and definitive therapy.
This research aims to examine the extent to which a promising academic intervention—high-intensity tutoring by SAGA Innovations—that has previously been shown to significantly improve ...
The study is aimed at answering the questions; (1) How well do the most commonly used treatments in iSGS work? and (2) What quality-of-life trade-offs are associated with each approach? ...
Identifying and making a decision about the best health treatment or screening option can be difficult for patients. Decision aids can be used when there is more than one reasonable option...
Background: Depending on nature and needs, physical fitness can be divided into healthy fitness and physical fitness (also known as competitive fitness). Healthy fitness includes cardio-re...
This study will compare the impact of traditional group fitness versus a game-based fitness program, designed to maximize enjoyment, on physical fitness.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised. The slave trade is all acts involved in the capture, acquisition or disposal of persons with intent to reduce them to enslavement; all acts involved in the acquisition of enslaved persons with a view to selling or exchanging them; all acts of disposal by sale or exchange of persons acquired with a view to being sold or exchanged, and, in general, every act of trade or transport of slaves. ( from http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/slaveryen.pdf accessed 10/18/2012)
Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.
A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.