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Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder and is caused by CGG repeat expansion in the promoter region of the FMR1 gene, which encodes fragile X mental retardation protein. This event leads to gene silencing and the loss of gene products through DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling. Due to the pathogenesis of FXS, targeted, symptomatic, and etiological approaches have been developed for its treatment. Despite their rapid development, symptomatic and targeted treatment approaches have numerous limitations; etiological approaches have the greatest potential because they affect the main causes of transcriptional silencing. In this review, we consider three potential etiological therapeutic methods that affect the reactivation of FMR1 gene expression: treatment with inhibitors of chromatin-modifying enzymes, the use of noncoding RNAs and the application of gene therapy. Inhibitors of chromatin-modifying enzymes are not clinically applicable because of their low reactivity and high cytotoxicity, and noncoding RNAs are currently only under study. Thus, we discuss gene therapy as the most promising approach for treating FXS in the near future.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Gene therapy
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common genetic cause of autism and intellectual disability. Fragile X mental retardation gene (Fmr1) knock-out (KO) mice display core deficits of FXS, including ab...
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a single genetic mutation in the Fmr1 gene, serving as the largest genetic cause of intellectual disability. Trinucleotide expansion...
Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation can cause developmental problems including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), social anxiety, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (A...
Fragile X syndrome, the leading heritable form of intellectual disability, is caused by hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing of large (CGG) repeat expansions (> 200 repeats) in the 5' untran...
Impaired energy metabolism may play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders including fragile X syndrome (FXS). We checked brain energy status and some aspects of cell bioenergetics...
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is caused by loss of FMR1 expression on the X chromosome that leads to increased mRNA translation, which results in hyperactivation of ERK (extracellular signal-re...
This is a single center study at the UC Davis MIND Institute in patients age 3.5-16 years of age with fragile X syndrome (FXS), funded by a National Fragile X Foundation Grant. It is a con...
This study is a controlled trial of metformin in individuals with fragile X syndrome between the ages of 6 and 25 years. Participants will be randomized in a double-blind design to either ...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether NNZ-2566 is safe and well tolerated in the treatment of Fragile X Syndrome in adolescent and adult males.
The purpose of this study is to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of oral OV101 (gaboxadol) in subjects with Fragile X syndrome.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
A RNA-binding protein that is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM. It helps regulate GENETIC TRANSLATION in NEURONS and is absent or under-expressed in FRAGILE X SYNDROME.
An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.
The expression of a gene in an abnormal place, or at an abnormal time in an organism. Ectopic Gene Expression is often induced artificially by genetic techniques.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...