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The function and clinical application of extracellular vesicles in innate immune regulation.

08:00 EDT 19th March 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "The function and clinical application of extracellular vesicles in innate immune regulation."

The innate immune system plays a crucial role in the host defense against viral and microbial infection. Exosomes constitute a subset of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can be released by almost all cell types. Owing to their capacity to shield the payload from degradation and to evade recognition and subsequent removal by the immune system, exosomes efficiently transport functional components to recipient cells. Accumulating evidence has recently shown that exosomes derived from tumor cells, host cells and even bacteria and parasites mediate the communication between the invader and innate immune cells and thus play an irreplaceable function in the dissemination of pathogens and donor cell-derived molecules, modulating the innate immune responses of the host. In this review, we describe the current understanding of EVs (mainly focusing on exosomes) and summarize and discuss their crucial roles in determining innate immune responses. Additionally, we discuss the potential of using exosomes as biomarkers and cancer vaccines in diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Cellular & molecular immunology
ISSN: 2042-0226
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A member of the S100 PROTEIN FAMILY that regulates INFLAMMATION and the immune response. It recruits LEUKOCYTES, promotes cytokine and chemokine production, and regulates leukocyte adhesion and migration. S100A12 can also function via binding to ADVANCED GLYCOSYLATION END PRODUCT-SPECIFIC RECEPTORS, to stimulate innate immune cells.

Membrane limited structures derived from cell membranes and cytoplasmic material, and released into EXTRACELLULAR SPACE. They circulate through the EXTRACELLULAR FLUID and through the peripheral blood in the MICROVASCULATURE where cells, much larger, cannot, thereby affecting a variety of intercellular communication processes.

Vesicles secreted from MULTIVESICULAR BODIES into the extracellular environment when the multivesicular bodies fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Multivesicular bodies are formed from ENDOSOMES when they accumulate vesicles (sometimes referred to as "intraluminal vesicles") from inward budding of the endosome membrane.

A lipocalin of approximately 200 amino acids that functions as an iron transporter and is expressed by cells of BONE MARROW and many other cells with secretory functions. It is involved in APOPTOSIS and may function to limit pathogenic bacterial growth as part of the INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE.

Regeneration of normal immune function after immune depleting procedures or infections (e.g., HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION). Delayed and incomplete reconstitution of the ADAPTIVE IMMUNE system in particular involving T-CELLS is associated with increase or relapse of infection.

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