Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
The innate immune system plays a crucial role in the host defense against viral and microbial infection. Exosomes constitute a subset of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can be released by almost all cell types. Owing to their capacity to shield the payload from degradation and to evade recognition and subsequent removal by the immune system, exosomes efficiently transport functional components to recipient cells. Accumulating evidence has recently shown that exosomes derived from tumor cells, host cells and even bacteria and parasites mediate the communication between the invader and innate immune cells and thus play an irreplaceable function in the dissemination of pathogens and donor cell-derived molecules, modulating the innate immune responses of the host. In this review, we describe the current understanding of EVs (mainly focusing on exosomes) and summarize and discuss their crucial roles in determining innate immune responses. Additionally, we discuss the potential of using exosomes as biomarkers and cancer vaccines in diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cellular & molecular immunology
The liver serves as a central participant in immune system owing to its particular blood supply and large amounts of immune cells, in which macrophages play a significant role in liver homeostasis and...
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that play a major role in the immune surveillance against tumors and their activity is regulated through signals derived by a number of NK cell inhi...
Extracellular vesicles are lipid bilayer-enclosed extracellular structures. Although the term extracellular vesicles is quite inclusive, it generally refers to exosomes (
Chronic activation of the innate immune system plays a central role in HIV-1 disease progression. Negative regulation of innate immunity is critical in preventing the effects of this excessive activat...
The cardio-protective effects of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPC) are largely mediated by the paracrine release of extracellular vesicles (EV). We aime...
Beta-cells release extracellular vesicles (EV) and exosomes under normal and pathophysiologic conditions. These EV contain beta-cell specific autoantigens which may trigger the immune resp...
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are abundant in oily fish and fish oils, have been suggested to play a role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) by modi...
Background: There is some evidence demonstrating the effect of psychological interventions in improvements in health biological parameters. To best of our knowledge, no study had addressed...
Excessive inflammation is associated with tissue damage caused by over-activation of the innate immune system. This can range from mild disease to extreme conditions such as multiple organ...
Platelet activation and aggregation leads to myocardial infarction. Platelet P2Y12 receptors are essential for platelet activation. Antagonists against the P2Y12 receptor, which are establ...
A member of the S100 PROTEIN FAMILY that regulates INFLAMMATION and the immune response. It recruits LEUKOCYTES, promotes cytokine and chemokine production, and regulates leukocyte adhesion and migration. S100A12 can also function via binding to ADVANCED GLYCOSYLATION END PRODUCT-SPECIFIC RECEPTORS, to stimulate innate immune cells.
Membrane limited structures derived from cell membranes and cytoplasmic material, and released into EXTRACELLULAR SPACE. They circulate through the EXTRACELLULAR FLUID and through the peripheral blood in the MICROVASCULATURE where cells, much larger, cannot, thereby affecting a variety of intercellular communication processes.
Vesicles secreted from MULTIVESICULAR BODIES into the extracellular environment when the multivesicular bodies fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Multivesicular bodies are formed from ENDOSOMES when they accumulate vesicles (sometimes referred to as "intraluminal vesicles") from inward budding of the endosome membrane.
A lipocalin of approximately 200 amino acids that functions as an iron transporter and is expressed by cells of BONE MARROW and many other cells with secretory functions. It is involved in APOPTOSIS and may function to limit pathogenic bacterial growth as part of the INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE.
Regeneration of normal immune function after immune depleting procedures or infections (e.g., HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION). Delayed and incomplete reconstitution of the ADAPTIVE IMMUNE system in particular involving T-CELLS is associated with increase or relapse of infection.
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...