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Adaptive immunity is essential for pathogen and tumor eradication, but may also trigger uncontrolled or pathological inflammation. T cell receptor, co-stimulatory and cytokine signals coordinately dictate specific signaling networks that trigger the activation and functional programming of T cells. In addition, cellular metabolism promotes T cell responses and is dynamically regulated through the interplay of serine/threonine kinases, immunological cues and nutrient signaling networks. In this review, we summarize the upstream regulators and signaling effectors of key serine/threonine kinase-mediated signaling networks, including PI3K-AGC kinases, mTOR and LKB1-AMPK pathways that regulate metabolism, especially in T cells. We also provide our perspectives about the pending questions and clinical applicability of immunometabolic signaling. Understanding the regulators and effectors of immunometabolic signaling networks may uncover therapeutic targets to modulate metabolic programming and T cell responses in human disease.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cell research
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are highly lethal cardiovascular diseases without effective medications. However, the molecular and signaling mechanisms remain unclear. A series of pathological cell...
Network topology ensures robust outcomes for information-transferring networks in biology (e.g., signaling and gene regulatory networks). In this issue of Developmental Cell, Yevick et al. (2019) dem...
Due to structural and functional abnormalities or genetic variations and mutations, there may be dysfunctional molecules within an intracellular signaling network that do not allow the network to corr...
The integrin family of transmembrane adhesion receptors is essential for sensing and adhering to the extracellular environment. Integrins are heterodimers composed of non-covalently associated α and ...
Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates multi-layered signaling networks with broad implications in (patho)physiology, but high-throughput methods for functional annotation of phosphotyrosine sites are lac...
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This is a study to learn about obesity and how insulin resistance and Type 2 Diabetes develops in children.
There are significant and persistent disparities in access to kidney transplantation and as a result most patients with end stage renal disease receive hemodialysis (HD). HD is unique as i...
The study is about the role of cellular neural networks-genetic algorithm in the diagnosis of periprosthetic hip infections. A retrospective case series of septic and aseptic loosening of ...
The investigators are examining the activation of insulin signaling factors in skeletal muscles of human diabetics. The investigators are characterizing the defects in signaling, and are e...
A NOD-signaling adaptor protein that contains a C-terminal leucine-rich domain which recognizes bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. It plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.
A sub-family of smad proteins that inhibit cell signaling by RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. They form autoinhibitory feedback loops in the TGF-BETA signaling pathway and mediate signaling cross-talk with other signaling pathways
A NOD signaling adaptor protein that contains two C-terminal leucine-rich domains which recognize bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal capase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. The protein plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Mutations of the gene encoding the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 protein have been associated with increased susceptibility to CROHN DISEASE.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...
Cytokine Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)
TNF is a compound that is classified as a cytokine which plays a central role in the cellular mechanisms of apoptosis or cell death. However, there are a number of different kinds of TNF, just under twenty, but the family of molecules have very similar a...