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Glucocorticoid synthesis is a complex, multistep process that starts with cholesterol being delivered to the inner membrane of mitochondria by StAR and StAR-related proteins. Here its side chain is cleaved by CYP11A1 producing pregnenolone. Pregnenolone is converted to cortisol by the enzymes 3-βHSD, CYP17A1, CYP21A2, and CYP11B1. Glucocorticoids play a critical role in the regulation of the immune system and exert their action through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Although corticosteroids are primarily produced in the adrenal gland, they can also be produced in a number of extra-adrenal tissue including the immune system, skin, brain, and intestine. Glucocorticoid production is regulated by ACTH, CRH, and cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNFα. The bioavailability of cortisol is also dependent on its interconversion to cortisone, which is inactive, by 11βHSD1/2. Local and systemic glucocorticoid biosynthesis can be stimulated by ultraviolet B, explaining its immunosuppressive activity. In this review, we want to emphasize that dysregulation of extra-adrenal glucocorticoid production can play a key role in a variety of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus erythematosus (LE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and skin inflammatory disorders such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD). Further research on local glucocorticoid production and its bioavailability may open doors into new therapies for autoimmune diseases.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Genes and immunity
Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a serious condition, which can arise from pathology affecting the adrenal gland itself (primary adrenal insufficiency, PAI), hypothalamic or pituitary pathology (secondar...
Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are ubiquitous transcription factors widely studied for their role in controlling events related to inflammation, stress and homeostasis. Recently, GRs have reemerged as...
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The primary purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in a population of patients with kidney transplants receiving low dose prednisone treatment. Deve...
Glucocorticoids are widely used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Although glucocorticoids are effective in controlling disease symptoms, continuous use of the drugs can ...
The Occurence of Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency in Hospitalised Patients With Exacerbation of COPD in Glucocorticoid Treatment Related to Differenct Gene Polymorphisms of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene
To investigate the correlation between four well-known polymorphisms of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (two with reduced sensitivity versus two with increased sensitivity) and the occurr...
The management of adrenal crisis is often problematic and the time to adequate treatment is frequently delayed.The aim of the study is to evaluate the management of adrenal emergencies req...
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A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)
A glucocorticoid derivative used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream, gel, lotion, or ointment. It has also been used topically in the treatment of inflammatory eye, ear, and nose disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)
A glucocorticoid employed, usually as eye drops, in the treatment of allergic and inflammatory conditions of the eye. It has also been used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)
A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)
Abnormal SEX DIFFERENTIATION caused by disorders of the GONADS or the ADRENAL GLANDS, such as CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA and ADRENAL CORTEX NEOPLASMS. Due to abnormal steroid biosynthesis, clinical features include VIRILISM in females; FEMINIZATION in males; or precocious sexual development in children.
Autoimmune disorders are conditions that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. There are more than 80 different types of autoimmune disorders. Normally the immune system's white blood cells help protect ...
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