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The cardiovascular risk in paediatrics: the paradigm of the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

08:00 EDT 17th March 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "The cardiovascular risk in paediatrics: the paradigm of the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome."

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) describes a spectrum of abnormal breathing patterns during sleep characterised by snoring, increased upper airway resistance and pharyngeal collapsibility, with alteration of normal oxygenation and ventilation. Intermittent desaturations during sleep have multi-organ implications. Adults with OSAS have an increased risk of developing a dysfunctional endothelium that is characterised by greater adherence of inflammatory mediators to endothelial cells and hypercoagulability. There is increasing evidence to show that risk factors for comorbid cardiovascular disease (CVD) can develop during childhood and adolescence and are likely to continue over time. Risk factors for CVD include both modifiable factors and factors that cannot be changed.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Blood transfusion = Trasfusione del sangue
ISSN: 2385-2070
Pages: 1-9

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)

Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.

Posterior displacement of the TONGUE toward the PHARYNX. It is often a feature in syndromes such as in PIERRE ROBIN SYNDROME and DOWN SYNDROME and associated with AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION during sleep (OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEAS).

HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.

Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.

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