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Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), leach out from consumer products into the environment. Exposure to BFRs has been associated with effects on endocrine homeostasis. To test the hypothesis that in utero and lactational exposure to BFRs may affect the reproductive system of female offspring, adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets formulated to deliver nominal doses (0, 0.06, 20, or 60 mg/kg/day) of a BFR dietary mixture mimicking the relative congener levels in house dust from prior to mating until weaning. Vaginal opening and the day of first estrus occurred at a significantly earlier age among offspring from the 20 mg/kg/day BFR group, indicating that the onset of puberty was advanced. Histological analysis of ovaries from post-natal day 46 offspring revealed an increase in the incidence of abnormal follicles. A toxicogenomic analysis of ovarian gene expression identified upstream regulators, including HIF1A, CREB1, EGF, the β-estradiol and PPARA pathways, predicted to be downregulated in the 20 mg/kg/day or the 60 mg/kg/day group and to contribute to the gene expression patterns observed. Thus, perinatal exposure to BFRs dysregulated ovarian folliculogenesis and signaling pathways that are fundamental for ovarian function in the adult.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
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Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.
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