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Decreasing the particle size of nanoscaled battery materials will induce amazing enhancement effects on their charging rates, which holds a promise to overcome the common bottleneck of the low charging rates of batteries. However, the fabrication of ultrafine-sized battery materials remains a great challenge. Herein, 3.3 nm-sized anatase TiO2 particles embedded in electrically and ionically conductive carbon spheres have been designed and fabricated via the suppression of Ostwald ripening with the aim to obtain insight into the electrochemical behaviors of ultrafine-sized materials. The pseudocapacitive and diffusion-controlled intercalative characteristics of the 3.3 nm-sized TiO2/carbon hybrid spheres for Li-ion and Na-ion storage have been systematically investigated via a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method combined with a differential capacitance method that is introduced here for the first time to analyze battery materials. CV and galvanostatic voltage profiles demonstrate that pseudocapacitance dominates the charge storage and increases with cycling for both Li-ion and Na-ion storage. Capacitance accounts for >83% of the Li-ion storage. A specific pseudocapacitance of 558 F g-1 with a window voltage of ∼2 V in carbonate electrolyte has been achieved. The reversible capacity is higher than the theoretical capacity of TiO2 after 600 discharge/charge cycles at 2 C and maintains ∼60% of that of TiO2 even at 80 C (45 s for full discharge or charge). For Na-ion storage, a high cycliability of 2500 discharge/charge cycles has been obtained at 2 C. Capacitance accounts for ∼79% of the Na-ion storage with cycling. Ultrafine-sized materials are very promising electrode candidates for constructing pseudocapacitive batteries possessing both high energy and power densities.
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Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.