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Urine biomarkers of renal renin-angiotensin system activity: Exploratory analysis in humans with and without obstructive sleep apnea.

07:00 EST 1st March 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Urine biomarkers of renal renin-angiotensin system activity: Exploratory analysis in humans with and without obstructive sleep apnea."

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may contribute to kidney injury by activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which is reduced by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. A biomarker in the urine that reflects renal RAS activity could identify patients at risk of kidney injury and monitor their response to CPAP therapy. Nine patients with OSA and six matched control subjects without OSA were recruited. Renal RAS activity was measured by the renovasoconstrictor response to Angiotensin II challenge, a validated marker of RAS activity, and urine samples were collected in all subjects at baseline and repeated in those with OSA following treatment with CPAP. A broad range (1,310) of urine analytes was measured including 26 associated with the RAS signaling pathway. The OSA group was a similar age and weight as the control group (48.7 ± 10.4 vs. 47.7 ± 9.3 yrs; BMI 36.9 ± 7.2 vs. 34.7 ± 2.5 kg/m ) and had severe sleep apnea (ODI 51.1 ± 26.8 vs. 4.3 ± 2/hour) and nocturnal hypoxemia (mean SaO 87 ± 5.2 vs. 92.6 ± 1.1%). CPAP corrected OSA associated with a return of the renovasocontrictor response to Angiotensin II to control levels. Partial least squares (PLS) logistic regression analysis showed significant separation between pre- and post-CPAP levels (p < .002) when all analytes were used, and a strong trend when only RAS-associated analytes were used (p = .05). These findings support the concept that urine analytes may be used to identify OSA patients who are susceptible to kidney injury from OSA before renal function deteriorates and to monitor the impact of CPAP therapy on renal RAS activity.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Physiological reports
ISSN: 2051-817X
Pages: e14376

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.

A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.

A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.

A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.

A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.

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