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In this study we aimed to assess the effects of continuous formalin fixation on diffusion and relaxation metrics of the ex vivo porcine heart at 7 T. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on eight piglet hearts using a 7 T whole body system. Hearts were measured fresh within 3 hours of cardiac arrest followed by immersion in 10% neutral buffered formalin. T and T were assessed using a gradient multi-echo and multi-echo spin echo sequence, respectively. A spin echo and a custom stimulated echo sequence were employed to assess diffusion time-dependent changes in metrics of cardiac diffusion tensor imaging. SNR was determined for b = 0 images. Scans were performed for 5 mm thick apical, midcavity and basal slices (in-plane resolution: 1 mm) and repeated 7, 15, 50, 100 and 200 days postfixation. Eigenvalues of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) following fixation. Relative to fresh hearts, FA values 7 and 200 days postfixation were 90% and 80%, while respective relative ADC values at those fixation stages were 78% and 92%. Statistical helix and sheetlet angle distributions as well as respective mean and median values showed no systematic influence of continuous formalin fixation. Similar to changes in the ADC, values for T , T and SNR dropped initially postfixation. Respective relative values compared with fresh hearts at day 7 were 64%, 79% and 68%, whereas continuous fixation restored T , T and SNR leading to relative values of 74%, 100%, and 81% at day 200, respectively. Relaxation parameters and diffusion metrics are significantly altered by continuous formalin fixation. The preservation of microstructure metrics following prolonged fixation is a key finding that may enable future studies of ventricular remodeling in cardiac pathologies.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: NMR in biomedicine
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography has an important role in the visualization of brain white matter and assessment of tissue microstructure. There is a lack of correspondence betwee...
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The objective of this study is to determine whether a new minimally invasive method for in vivo measurement of cortical bone tissue properties can identify those who are at risk for fragil...
Cerebral vascular disorder is one of the most fatal diseases despite current advances in medical science. The large number of negative clinical trials on neuroprotection in acute stroke is...
We hypothesize that we could optimize our risk prediction for pelvic floor disorders after childbirth by taking into account intrinsic women's pelvic floor characteristics and their change...
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
Two extensive fibrous bands running the length of the vertebral column. The anterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale anterius; lacertus medius) interconnects the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies; the posterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale posterius) interconnects the posterior surfaces. The commonest clinical consideration is OSSIFICATION OF POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...
Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine. Cardiac electrophysiology : Study of the electrical properties and conduction diseases of the heart. Echocardiography : The use of ultrasound to study the mechanical function/physics of the h...