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Gamma linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid having selective anti-tumour properties with negligible systemic toxicity. In the present study, the anti-cancer potential of gamma linolenic acid and its effects on mitochondrial as well as hypoxia-associated marker was evaluated. The effect of gamma linolenic acid was scrutinised against ER + MCF-7 cells by using fluorescence microscopy, JC-1 staining, dot plot assay and cell cycle analysis. The in vitro results were also confirmed using carcinogen (n-methyl-n-nitrosourea) induced in vivo model. The early and late apoptotic signals in the conjugation with mitochondrial depolarisation were found once scrutinised through mitochondrial membrane potential and life death staining after gamma linolenic acid treatment. Gamma linolenic acid arrested the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase with the majority of cell populations in the early apoptotic stage. The translocation of phosphatidylserine was studied through annexin-V FITC dot plot assay. The markers of cellular proliferation (decreased alveolar bud count, histopathological architecture restoration and loss of tumour micro-vessels) were diminished after gamma linolenic acid treatment. Gamma linolenic acid ameliorates the biological effects of n-methyl-n-nitrosourea persuading the mitochondrial mediated death pathway and impeding the hypoxic microenvironment to make a halt in palmitic acid synthesis.
The present study elaborates the effect of gamma linolenic acid on mammary gland cancer by following mitochondrial-mediated death apoptosis pathway. Gamma linolenic acid also inhibits cell-wall synthesis by the curtailment of HIF-1α and FASN level in mammary gland cancer.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cell biochemistry and function
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OBJECTIVES: I. Assess the efficacy of thioctic acid in treating a single patient with mitochondrial myopathy.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.
Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydration of unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA to yield beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA. It plays a role in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, has broad specificity, and is most active with crotonyl-CoA. EC 188.8.131.52.
A perilipin that functions in LIPOGENESIS; LIPOLYSIS; and fatty acid oxidation in BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE; heart, liver, and skeletal muscle. It recruits MITOCHONDRIA to the surface of LIPID DROPLETS where it functions in both the storage of fatty acids as TRIGLYCERIDES, and their release for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in response to metabolic needs.
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Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...