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Volumetric loss of skeletal muscle can occur through sports injuries, surgical ablation, trauma, motor or industrial accident, and war-related injury. Likewise, massive and ultimately catastrophic muscle cell loss occurs over time with progressive degenerative muscle diseases, such as the muscular dystrophies. Repair of volumetric loss of skeletal muscle requires replacement of large volumes of tissue to restore function. Repair of larger lesions cannot be achieved by injection of stem cells or muscle progenitor cells into the lesion in absence of a supportive scaffold that (1) provides trophic support for the cells and the recipient tissue environment, (2) appropriate differentiational cues, and (3) structural geometry for defining critical organ/tissue components/niches necessary or a functional outcome. 3D bioprinting technologies offer the possibility of printing orientated 3D structures that support skeletal muscle regeneration with provision for appropriately compartmentalized components ranging across regenerative to functional niches. This chapter includes protocols that provide for the generation of robust skeletal muscle cell precursors and methods for their inclusion into methacrylated gelatin (GelMa) constructs using 3D bioprinting.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
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A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
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