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When safe and adequate exposure of an essential trace element is exceeded it becomes potentially toxic. Fluoride is one classic example of such a double edged sword which both plays a fundamental role in the normal growth and development of the body for example the consumption of levels between 0.5-1.0 ppm via drinking water is beneficial for prevention of dental caries but its excessive consumption leads to development of fluorosis. PURPOSE OF
The abundance of fluorine in the environment as well as in drinking water sources are the major contributors to fluorosis. It is a serious public health concern as it is a noteworthy medical problem in 24 nations including India yet the threat of fluorosis has not been rooted out. The review focuses on recent findings related to skeletal fluorosis and role of oxidative stress in its development. The fluoride mitigation strategies adopted in recent years are also discussed. RECENT FINDINGS BASED ON CASE
Recent findings revealed that consumption of fluoride at concentrations of 1.5 ppm is majorly responsible for skeletal fluorosis. The sampling from rural areas showed that 80% villages are having fluoride concentrations more than the WHO permissible limits and people residing in such areas are affected by the skeletal fluorosis and also in the regions of Africa and Asia endemic fluorosis have been accounted in the majority of the region affecting approximately 100 million people. Various mitigation programmes and strategies have been conducted all over the world using defluoridation. Fluorosis is a slow and progressive malady affecting our body and a serious concern to be taken into consideration and to be dealt with effectively. The fluoride toxicity although reversible, is a slow process and the side effects lack treatment options. The treatment options available are either not approachable or affordable in the rural areas commonly suffering from the fluoride toxicity. No specific treatments are available to date to treat skeletal fluorosis affectively; therefore, prevention is one of most safest and best approach to fight fluorosis. The current review lays emphasis on the skeletal fluorosis and its prevalence in recent years. It also includes the recent findings as well as the current strategies related to combat skeletal fluorosis and provides findings that might be helpful to promote the research in the field of effective treatment for fluorosis as well as development of easy and affordable methods of fluoride removal from water.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current environmental health reports
Skeletal fluorosis is a chronic metabolic bone disease caused by excessive exposed to fluoride. Recent studies have shown that fluoride causes abnormal bone metabolism through disrupting the expressio...
Protection of Resveratrol (RSV) against the neurotoxicity induced by high level of fluoride was investigated. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and their offspring, as well as cultures of primary neurons were ...
Since the 1950s, the benefits and risks of fluoridated water use have been debated worldwide. In the past, it was considered that the systemically ingested fluoride would exert its primary preventive ...
Chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water may result in endemic fluorosis. To better understand the mechanisms by which some people are resistant to fluorosis, here we investigated the effect of t...
Prolonged consumption of fluoride-contaminated water poses health problems like dental and skeletal fluorosis in many parts of the world including India. In regions with acute water scarcity, it deman...
Fluorosis is caused by hypomineralization in the enamel due to increased fluoride ingestion during early childhood (Cawson.1, Wong et al. 2, and Sudhir 3). A considerable amount of evidenc...
This research aimed to evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis by using an experimental fluoridated acidulated dentifrice compared to conventional dentifrices in two-to-four-year-old childre...
A cohort of newborns was recruited for the Iowa Fluoride Study from 1992-95 to assess the complex relationships among fluoride intakes, fluoride exposures, dental fluorosis, and dental car...
This study will evaluate the impact of a pilot Rural Electric Kettle Promotion Program offered to low-income households in rural Anhui Province, China. The primary objective of this study ...
This study evaluates the effect of alkaline (pH=9) versus neutral (pH=9) drinking-water on the gut microbiota of healthy male volunteers.
Calcium fluoride. Occurring in nature as the mineral fluorite or fluorspar. It is the primary source of fluorine and its compounds. Pure calcium fluoride is used as a catalyst in dehydration and dehydrogenation and is used to fluoridate drinking water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of waste water to provide potable and hygiene water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The Commission was created by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 under Title XVIII. It is specifically charged to review the effect of Medicare+Choice under Medicare Part C and to review payment policies under Parts A and B. It is also generally charged to evaluate the effect of prospective payment policies and their impact on health care delivery in the US. The former Prospective Payment Assessment Commission (ProPAC) and the Physician Payment Review Commission (PPRC) were merged to form MEDPAC.
Dentistry is the study, management and treatment of diseases and conditions affecting the mouth, jaw, teeth and their supporting tissues (Oxford Medical Dictionary) The work of a dentist ranges from regular patient check-up to orthodontics and surgery....
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