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Fluoride in Drinking Water and Skeletal Fluorosis: a Review of the Global Impact.

08:00 EDT 23rd March 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Fluoride in Drinking Water and Skeletal Fluorosis: a Review of the Global Impact."

When safe and adequate exposure of an essential trace element is exceeded it becomes potentially toxic. Fluoride is one classic example of such a double edged sword which both plays a fundamental role in the normal growth and development of the body for example the consumption of levels between 0.5-1.0 ppm via drinking water is beneficial for prevention of dental caries but its excessive consumption leads to development of fluorosis. PURPOSE OF
REVIEW:
The abundance of fluorine in the environment as well as in drinking water sources are the major contributors to fluorosis. It is a serious public health concern as it is a noteworthy medical problem in 24 nations including India yet the threat of fluorosis has not been rooted out. The review focuses on recent findings related to skeletal fluorosis and role of oxidative stress in its development. The fluoride mitigation strategies adopted in recent years are also discussed. RECENT FINDINGS BASED ON CASE
STUDIES:
Recent findings revealed that consumption of fluoride at concentrations of 1.5 ppm is majorly responsible for skeletal fluorosis. The sampling from rural areas showed that 80% villages are having fluoride concentrations more than the WHO permissible limits and people residing in such areas are affected by the skeletal fluorosis and also in the regions of Africa and Asia endemic fluorosis have been accounted in the majority of the region affecting approximately 100 million people. Various mitigation programmes and strategies have been conducted all over the world using defluoridation. Fluorosis is a slow and progressive malady affecting our body and a serious concern to be taken into consideration and to be dealt with effectively. The fluoride toxicity although reversible, is a slow process and the side effects lack treatment options. The treatment options available are either not approachable or affordable in the rural areas commonly suffering from the fluoride toxicity. No specific treatments are available to date to treat skeletal fluorosis affectively; therefore, prevention is one of most safest and best approach to fight fluorosis. The current review lays emphasis on the skeletal fluorosis and its prevalence in recent years. It also includes the recent findings as well as the current strategies related to combat skeletal fluorosis and provides findings that might be helpful to promote the research in the field of effective treatment for fluorosis as well as development of easy and affordable methods of fluoride removal from water.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Current environmental health reports
ISSN: 2196-5412
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