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Neuro-schistosomiasis can induce neurological symptoms and severe disability. Since the resistance against the chemotherapy "praziquantel" was reported, the aim of the present study was investigating the anti-neuro-schistosomal effects of ZnO nanoparticles and/or L-carnitine (as free radicals scavenger) on schistosome-infected mice, where technology of nanoparticles has come to the forefront in the medical diagnosis and therapeutic drug delivery. In the human body, nanoscale-sized particles can move freely and reveal unique biological, mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties. In the present study, mice were divided into five groups. The first group served as the non-infected control group. Groups II, III, IV, and V were infected with cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni. Mice of groups III and IV were treated with ZnO nanoparticles (5.6 mg/kg b. wt.) and L-carnitine (500 mg/kg b. wt.), respectively, after 47 days post-infection. Finally, mice of the fifth group were injected with ZnO nanoparticles and after 1 h, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with L-carnitine once daily for 5 days. On day 52, post-infection mice of all groups were cervically decapitated. The treatment of ZnO nanoparticles and/or L-carnitine to schistosome-infected mice decreased brain oxidative stress parameters, where glutathione level and catalase activity were significantly increased as compared to schistosome-infected group. On the contrary, the treatment decreased nitrite/nitrate, malondialdehyde, and reactive oxygen species levels significantly. In addition, ZnO nanoparticles and/or L-carnitine treatment restored DNA laddering profile and improved the brain histopathological impairments resulting from neuro-schistosomiasis. Finally, the ZnO nanoparticle treatment and the co-treatment of ZnO nanoparticles and L-carnitine revealed anti-neuro-schistosomal effects on the infected mice.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science and pollution research international
Schistosomiasis is a disease that afflicts over 220 million people worldwide. To date, there is no vaccine against schistosomiasis and chemotherapy relies basically on a single drug, praziquantel. The...
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The aim of this study is to assess the impact of Schistosoma mansoni infection and its treatment on genital immunology and HIV susceptibility in Ugandan women.
Groups of 3 or 7 volunteers will be exposed to a predetermined number of female Schistosoma mansoni cercariae until 10 volunteers are found infected.
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The study will recruit up to 290 healthy adult males and non-pregnant females into a two-part clinical trial of a vaccine to protect against schistosomiasis caused by infection with S. man...
Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.
Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism. The NANOPARTICLES; and MICROSPHERES of its mineral form, magnetite, have many biomedical applications.
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States. (Merck Manual, 15th ed)
SCHISTOSOMIASIS of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges caused by infections with trematodes of the genus SCHISTOSOMA (primarily SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM; SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI; and SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM in humans). S. japonicum infections of the nervous system may cause an acute meningoencephalitis or a chronic encephalopathy. S. mansoni and S. haematobium nervous system infections are associated with acute transverse myelitis involving the lower portions of the spinal cord. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp61-2)
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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