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Large animal models have been widely used to facilitate the translation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from the laboratory to patient. MSC, with their multi-potent capacity, have been proposed to have therapeutic benefits in a number of pathological conditions. Laboratory studies allow the investigation of cellular and molecular interactions, while small animal models allow initial 'proof of concept' experiments. Large animals (dogs, pigs, sheep, goats and horses) are more similar physiologically and structurally to man. These models have allowed clinically relevant assessments of safety, efficacy and dosing of different MSC sources prior to clinical trials. In this review, we recapitulate the use of large animal models to facilitate the use of MSC to treat myocardial infarction-an example of one large animal model being considered the 'gold standard' for research and osteoarthritis-an example of the complexities of using different large animal models in a multifactorial disease. These examples show how large animals can provide a research platform that can be used to evaluate the value of cell-based therapies and facilitate the process of 'bench to bedside'.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cell biology and toxicology
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The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.
Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.
A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A highly chlorinated polycyclic hydrocarbon insecticide whose large number of chlorine atoms makes it resistant to degradation. It has been shown to be toxic to mammals and causes abnormal cellular changes in laboratory animals.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
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