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Kinase-targeted therapy has been widely used as a lifesaving strategy for cancer patients. However, many patients treated with targeted cancer drugs are clinically observed to rapidly develop acquired resistance. Kinase gatekeeper mutation is one of the most chief factors contributing to the resistance, which modulates the accessibility of kinase's ATP-binding pocket. Previously, the pan-kinase inhibitor Staurosporine and its analogs (termed as Staralogs) have been reported to exhibit wild-type sparing selectivity for some kinase gatekeeper mutants, such as EGFR T790M, Her2 T798M and cSrc T338M. Here, we describe an integrative approach to systematically profile the molecular response of 15 representative Staralogs to 17 kinase gatekeeper mutations in targeted cancer therapy. With the profile we are able to divide gatekeeper mutations into three classes (i.e. classes I, II and III) and to divide Staralogs into two groups (i.e. groups 1 and 2) using heuristic clustering. The class I and II mutations confer consistent sensitivity and resistance for all Staralogs, respectively, while the class III mutations address divergent effects on different Staralogs. The mutations to Ile residue can generally reduce Staralog affinity by inducing unfavorable steric hindrance, whereas the mutations to Met and Leu residues would improve Staralog affinity by establishing favorable S···π interaction, van der Waals packing and/or hydrophobic contact. The group 1 and 2 Staralogs are primarily determined by carbonyl or hydroxyl substitution state at the position 7 of Staralog core, where points to kinase gatekeeper residue and can thus be directly influenced by gatekeeper mutation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Amino acids
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A 70-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 5. It is activated during the cellular response to GROWTH FACTORS, oxidative stress, and hyperosmotic conditions.
A 150-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase that may play a role in the induction of APOPTOSIS. It has specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 3; MAP KINASE KINASE 4; and MAP KINASE KINASE 6.
A pyrimidine and thiazole derived ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENT and PROTEIN KINASE INHIBITOR of BCR-ABL KINASE. It is used in the treatment of patients with CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA who are resistant or intolerant to IMATINIB.
Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
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