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Follicular help T cells (Tfh) play an important role in the activation and differentiation of B cells, while follicular regulatory T cells (Tfr) control Tfh and resulting humoral immune responses. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the dysregulation of Tfr contributed to the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. However, the role of Tfr in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection remains lacking. Fifty-five EBV-infected infectious mononucleosis (IM) patients and 21 healthy individuals (HIs) were recruited in the study. We investigated the number of Tfr (FoxP3CXCR5PD-1CD4) and Tfh (FoxP3CXCR5PD-1CD4) of peripheral blood in IM patients at diagnosis (D0) and day 15 after diagnosis (D15) via multicolor flow cytometry. Results revealed that circulating Tfh (cTfh) and Tfr (cTfr) of IM at D0 were both increased compared to HIs, and cTfr began to decline and return to normal at D15, while cTfh was still higher than those of HIs. More interestingly, the cTfr/cTfh ratio of IM at D0 and D15 was lower than that of HIs, suggesting that the balance between cTfh and cTfr was disturbed during primary EBV infection. Correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between cTfr with CD19IgDCD27 naive B cells, CD19IgDCD27 plasmablasts or CD19CD24CD27 B cells. Moreover, both cTfr and the cTfr/cTfh ratio of IM at D0 were negatively correlated with EBV DNA virus load. These results indicate that an imbalance of cTfr and cTfh cells may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of EBV-infected IM patients and may provide novel strategies for controlling EBV-related disease.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Clinical and experimental medicine
This study aimed to profile circulating T follicular helper cells (cTfh) and their effect on B cells in rheumatic heart disease (RHD).
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The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
Sarcoma of FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS most often found in the lymph nodes. This rare neoplasm occurs predominately in adults.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
Non-hematopoietic cells, with extensive dendritic processes, found in the primary and secondary follicles of lymphoid tissue (the B cell zones). They are different from conventional DENDRITIC CELLS associated with T-CELLS. They are derived from MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS and are negative for class II MHC antigen and do not process or present antigen like the conventional dendritic cells do. Instead, follicular dendritic cells have FC RECEPTORS and C3B RECEPTORS that hold antigen in the form of ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES on their surfaces for long periods for recognition by B-CELLS.
A disease of the pilosebaceous unit, presenting clinically as grouped follicular papules or plaques with associated hair loss. It is caused by mucinous infiltration of tissues, and usually involving the scalp, face, and neck. It may be primary (idiopathic) or secondary to mycosis fungoides or reticulosis.
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Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...