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Both in vitro and in vivo experimental studies proved that insulin has an important anabolic role. This physiological function of insulin is reflected in its well documented involvement in protein metabolism and in acceleration of cell proliferation. Support for a growth promoting action of insulin is further provided by clinical studies that revealed that children with hypoinsulinemia have a decreased growth rate whereas, on the other hand, children with hyperinsulinemia have an accelerated growth. While it was initially assumed that the growth activities of insulin are facilitated via cross-talk with the closely related insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), it is now clear that the vast majority of these activities are mediated via direct interaction with the insulin receptor (IR). The present article provides an overview of the growth and proliferative actions of insulin, with an emphasis on a number of pathological conditions, including cancer.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pediatric endocrinology reviews : PER
We have shown that subjects with Laron syndrome (LS) due to growth hormone receptor deficiency (GHRD) and their relatives have comparable brain structure and function; moreover, the brain of individua...
To investigate the anti-inflammatory property of ghrelin treatment on the Growth Hormone (GH)/Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-1) axis in Wistar rats that have undergone endotoxemia.
The reason for the insufficient catch-up growth seen in 10% of children born small for gestational age (SGA) is poorly understood. Disturbances in the growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor ...
Steady state insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels vary significantly during continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1/recombinant human insulin-like grow...
Human patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) commonly exhibit a short stature, but the pathogenesis of this growth retardation is not completely understood. Due to the suspected involvement o...
The purpose of this study is to examine the short-term effects of two different doses of growth hormone on the brain's secretion of growth hormone and the body's glucose metabolism. We hy...
The purpose of this study is to further characterize the treatment related changes in insulin sensitivity, substrate metabolism and intrahepatic-intramyocellular lipids in patients with gr...
In the present double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study we evaluated the impact of 12 weeks thiazolidinedione (TZD) administration on basal and insulin-stimulated substrate metabol...
The Macimorelin-GHST (growth hormone stimulation test) will be compared with the ITT (insulin tolerance test) in an open-label, randomized, 2-way crossover Trial. The trial will include su...
Investigating the effect of low dose growth hormone therapy on body fat composition, insulin sensitivity and metabolic profiles in middle-aged men with metabolic syndrome and low insulin-l...
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, defective GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTOR, and failure to generate INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I by GROWTH HORMONE. Laron syndrome is not a form of primary pituitary dwarfism (GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY DWARFISM) but the result of mutation of the human GHR gene on chromosome 5.
A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
Endocrine disorders are grouped into two categories: hormone imbalance - when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect...
Diabetes Diabetes Endocrine Disorders Obesity Oxycontin Renal Disease Thyroid Disorders Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they secrete (Oxford Medical Dictionary). There are several g...