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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects over 10% of the global population and poses significant challenges for societies and health care systems worldwide. To illustrate these challenges and inform cost-effectiveness analyses, we undertook a comprehensive systematic scoping review that explored costs, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and life expectancy (LE) amongst individuals with CKD. Costs were examined from a health system and societal perspective, and HRQoL was assessed from a societal and patient perspective. Papers published in English from 2015 onward found through a systematic search strategy formed the basis of the review. All costs were adjusted for inflation and expressed in US$ after correcting for purchasing power parity. From the health system perspective, progression from CKD stages 1-2 to CKD stages 3a-3b was associated with a 1.1-1.7 fold increase in per patient mean annual health care cost. The progression from CKD stage 3 to CKD stages 4-5 was associated with a 1.3-4.2 fold increase in costs, with the highest costs associated with end-stage renal disease at $20,110 to $100,593 per patient. Mean EuroQol-5D index scores ranged from 0.80 to 0.86 for CKD stages 1-3, and decreased to 0.73-0.79 for CKD stages 4-5. For treatment with renal replacement therapy, transplant recipients incurred lower costs and demonstrated higher HRQoL scores with longer LE compared to dialysis patients. The study has provided a comprehensive updated overview of the burden associated with different CKD stages and renal replacement therapy modalities across developed countries. These data will be useful for the assessment of new renal services/therapies in terms of cost-effectiveness.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)
Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.
Nephrology - kidney function
Nephrology is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Systemic conditions...