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When individuals exchange helpful acts reciprocally, increasing the benefit of the receiver can enhance its propensity to return a favour, as pay-offs are typically correlated in iterated interactions. Therefore, reciprocally cooperating animals should consider the relative benefit for the receiver when deciding to help a conspecific. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) exchange food reciprocally and thereby take into account both the cost of helping and the potential benefit to the receiver. By using a variant of the sequential iterated prisoner's dilemma paradigm, we show that rats may determine the need of another individual by olfactory cues alone. In an experimental food-exchange task, test subjects were provided with odour cues from hungry or satiated conspecifics located in a different room. Our results show that wild-type Norway rats provide help to a stooge quicker when they receive odour cues from a hungry rather than from a satiated conspecific. Using chemical analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we identify seven volatile organic compounds that differ in their abundance between hungry and satiated rats. Combined, this "smell of hunger" can apparently serve as a reliable cue of need in reciprocal cooperation, which supports the hypothesis of honest signalling.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS biology
To describe the types of social services provided at community health centers (CHCs), characteristics of CHCs providing these services, and the association between on-site provision and health care qu...
A few studies have demonstrated the association of poorer olfactory identification (OI) with poorer cognition in population-based cohorts. None of them considered the outcome associated with the inabi...
Are rats willing to avoid causing suffering in other rats? A new study shows that rats might change their behaviour if it is harmful to others.
Recognizing frailty, also known as clinical geriatric syndrome in the elderly that is characterized by high vulnerability and low resilience, and its extensive influence in clinical practice is challe...
In studies on resistance and protest, empirical research tends to concentrate on collective forms of action, those organised within social movements or by resistance groups. As such, research into the...
The investigators will conduct a randomized trial to evaluate whether provision of oral HIV self-test kits (HIVST) to HIV-positive pregnant women to provide to their male partner, increase...
The ability to smell varies greatly between different individuals. Some people are unable to detect an odor that most people can smell. It is not known what causes these individual differe...
Persons with a loss of sense of smell, who agree to participate in this study, will be assigned to one of three groups: two groups will have smell training and the third group will not do ...
CommunityRx-Hunger (CRx-H) is a hospital-based intervention that addresses food insecurity and other health-related social needs such as transportation, housing, utilities, and safety. Stu...
Mammalian fetal sensory development comes in an invariant series, with the tactile/kinesthetic and chemosensory systems the earliest functioning and responsive to stimulation, implicating ...
Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".
Hospital-sponsored provision of health services, such as nursing, therapy, and health-related homemaker or social services, in the patient's home. (Hospital Administration Terminology, 2d ed)
The practice of making choices about SEXUAL PARTNERS based on their HIV status.
Organized efforts to address ongoing psychological and social problems of individuals, their partners, families and caregivers.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...