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Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are two of the most commonly occurring diseases worldwide, especially among the elderly population. In particular, the increased prevalence of AD has imposed tremendous psychological and financial burdens on society. Growing evidence suggests both AD and T2D share many similar pathological traits. AD is characterized as a metabolic disorder whereby the glucose metabolism in the brain is impaired. This closely resembles the state of insulin resistance in T2D. Insulin resistance of the brain has been heavily implicated two prominent pathological features of AD, Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Brain insulin resistance is known to elicit a positive feed-forward loop towards the formation of AD pathology in which they affect each other in a synergistic manner. Other physiological traits shared between the two diseases include inflammation, oxidative stress and autophagic dysfunction, which are also closely associated with brain insulin resistance. In this review and depending on these underlying pathways that link these two diseases, we have discussed the potential therapeutic implications of AD. By expanding our knowledge of the overlapping pathophysiology involved, we hope to provide scientific basis to the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies to improve the clinical outcomes of AD in terms of diagnosis and treatment.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Panminerva medica
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A biochemical phenomenon in which misfolded proteins aggregate either intra- or extracellularly. Triggered by factors such as MUTATION, POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, and environmental stress, it is generally associated with ALZHEIMER DISEASE; PARKINSON DISEASE; HUNTINGTON DISEASE; and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Abnormal structures located chiefly in distal dendrites and, along with NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES and SENILE PLAQUES, constitute the three morphological hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. Neuropil threads are made up of straight and paired helical filaments which consist of abnormally phosphorylated microtubule-associated tau proteins. It has been suggested that the threads have a major role in the cognitive impairment seen in Alzheimer disease.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...