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Aberrant cell migration contributes to defective airway epithelial repair in childhood wheeze.

08:00 EDT 24th March 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Aberrant cell migration contributes to defective airway epithelial repair in childhood wheeze."

Abnormal wound repair has been observed in the airway epithelium of patients with chronic respiratory diseases including asthma. Therapies focusing on repairing vulnerable airways, particularly in early life, present an extremely novel treatment strategy. We report defective lower airway epithelial cell repair to strongly associate with common pre-school and school-aged wheezing phenotypes, characterised by aberrant migration patterns and reduced α5β1 integrin expression. Next generation sequencing identified the PI3K/Akt pathway as the top upstream transcriptional regulator of α5β1 integrin, where Akt activation enhanced repair and α5β1 integrin expression in primary cultures from children with wheeze. Conversely, inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling in primary cultures from children without wheeze reduced α5β1 expression and attenuated repair. Importantly, the FDA-approved drug celecoxib, and its non-COX2-inhibiting analogue dimethyl-celecoxib, stimulated the PI3K/Akt-integrin α5β1 axis and restored airway epithelial repair in cells from children with wheeze. When compared with published clinical datasets the identified transcriptomic signature was also associated with viral-induced wheeze exacerbations highlighting the clinical potential of such therapy. Collectively, these results identify airway epithelial restitution via targeting the PI3K/Akt-integrin axis as a novel therapeutic avenue for childhood wheeze and asthma. We propose that the next step in the therapeutic development process should be a proof-of-concept clinical trial since relevant animal models to test the crucial underlying premise are unavailable.

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Name: JCI insight
ISSN: 2379-3708
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

An extracellular matrix glycoprotein from platelets and a variety of normal and transformed cells of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Thrombospondin-1 is believed to play a role in cell migration and proliferation, during embryogenesis and wound repair. Also, it has been studied for its use as a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis.

Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.

The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.

Disorders resulting from defective DNA REPAIR processes or the associated cellular responses to DNA DAMAGE.

Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.

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