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Deep convolutional neural network (DCNN), now popularly called artificial intelligence (AI), has shown the potential to improve over previous computer-assisted tools in medical imaging developed in the past decades. A DCNN has millions of free parameters that need to be trained, but the training sample set is limited in size for most medical imaging tasks so that transfer learning is typically used. Automatic data mining may be an efficient way to enlarge the collected data set but the data can be noisy such as incorrect labels or even a wrong type of images. In this work we studied the generalization error of DCNN with transfer learning in medical imaging for the task of classifying malignant and benign masses on mammograms. With a finite available data set, we simulated a training set containing corrupted data or noisy labels. The balance between learning and memorization of the DCNN was manipulated by varying the proportion of corrupted data in the training set. The generalization error of DCNN was analyzed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the training and test sets and the weight changes after transfer learning. The study demonstrates that the transfer learning strategy of DCNN for such tasks needs to be designed properly, taking into consideration the constraints of the available training set having limited size and quality for the classification task at hand, to minimize memorization and improve generalizability.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physics in medicine and biology
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An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
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The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
The introduction of error due to systematic differences in the characteristics between those selected and those not selected for a given study. In sampling bias, error is the result of failure to ensure that all members of the reference population have a known chance of selection in the sample.
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