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Humans are frequently exposed to the antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) due to its widespread use in consumer and personal care products. However, there is a paucity of research on potential hepatotoxic risks of TCC exposure. In this study, nontargeted metabolomics approach was applied to simultaneously investigate TCC-induced perturbation of endogenous metabolites and generation of xenobiotic metabolites in human hepatic cells. In normal hepatocytes, TCC exposure induced cellular redox imbalance as evidenced by the decrease of glutathione metabolism and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. Defective oxidative phosphorylation and increased purine metabolism were two potential sources of elevated ROS. However, in cancerous hepatocytes, TCC exposure enhanced glutathione metabolism, glycolysis, and glutaminolysis, which contributed to the cellular homeostasis of redox and energy status, as well as the progression of liver cancer. As a xenobiotic, metabolic activation of TCC through phase I hydroxylation was observed. The hepatic cytotoxicity follows the order of 6-OH-TCC > 2'-OH-TCC > 3'-OH-TCC > DHC, with EC values of 2.42, 3.38, 7.38, and 24.8 μM, respectively, in 48 h-treated normal cells. This study improves current understanding of TCC-triggered hepatotoxicity, and provides novel perspectives for evaluating the interaction of environmental pollutants with biological systems.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of hazardous materials
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The quantitation of the body's metabolism of toxic xenobiotic compounds, as measured by the plasma concentration of the toxicant at various time points.
Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.
An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).
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Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
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