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Climate change and the increased demand for food amplified the global problem with water supply for irrigation. This work deals with the reclamation of municipal wastewater (MWW) for irrigation by a membrane bioreactor (MBR), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO). The emphasis was on the comparison of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Union (EU) guidelines. In addition, the detection and removal of contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) from the Watch List (EU Decision 2015/495) were examined. Firstly, the MWW was monitored (physico-chemical and microbiological parameters, trace elements, and occurrence of CECs) for six months. Thereafter, the MWW was treated with MBR, NF, and RO. The reclaimed water satisfied the physico-chemical and microbiological quality requirements only after additional NF/RO treatment. Membrane bioreactor efficiently removed methiocarb (>99.9%), tri-allate (>99.9%), clothianidin (88.0%), and clarithromycin (71.9-74.2%), while the removal of azithromycin, acetamiprid, and oxadiazon was around 30%. The low and even negative removal during MBR treatment was observed for diclofenac (15%), clothianidin (-14%), imidacloprid (-18%), and diclofenac (-157%). Additional treatment of MBR effluent with NF90 and XLE membranes resulted in complete rejection of detected CECs, while NF270 membrane achieved results between 75% and 91%.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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A genus of colorless, filamentous, rod-shaped bacteria in the family THIOTRICHACEAE, containing sulfur globules. Thiothrix species are found as components of BIOFILMS in irrigation systems and wastewater treatment plants, and in marine environments as endosymbionts.
Garbage, refuse, or sludge, or other discarded materials from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, and air pollution control facility that include solid, semi-solid, or contained material. It does not include materials dissolved in domestic sewage, irrigation return flows, or industrial discharges.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing solution which is inserted and then removed. Any drug in the irrigation solution may be absorbed.
Irrigation of the nose with saline or irrigation solutions for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is used to remove irritants, allergens, or microorganisms from the nose.
Methods, procedures, and tests performed in the laboratory with an intended application to the diagnosis of disease or understanding of physiological functioning. The techniques include examination of microbiological, cytological, chemical, and biochemical specimens, normal and pathological.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...