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Spatial distribution and ecological risks of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in sediments of the Laizhou Bay were investigated, and the relationships of PAEs with human activities and geochemical variables were studied in this work. Thirteen detectable PAEs were widespread occurrence, and the total PAE concentrations ranged from 813.1 to 11,975.6 μg/kg dry weight in sediments of the Laizhou Bay. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-butyl phthalate (DBP) were predominant and accounted for 51.9% of ΣPAEs. The major sources of PAEs with their characteristic PAE congeners or composition could be classified as riverine runoff from catchments of the Yellow River and the rivers Xiaoqing & Zhimai, and direct discharge from the west coast and Binhai Zone, according to continuous PAE spatial distribution patterns generated by GIS techniques. The concentrations of most PAEs gradually decreased from west inshore to east offshore in inverted S shapes, which was consistent with the tide field of the Laizhou Bay. There are negative correlations between sediment depth and all PAEs, and nine PAEs exhibited negative correlations with salinity using Pearson correlation analysis. Depth and salinity exerted negative influence on PAEs (contributions of 55.8% and 32.0%, respectively) according to redundancy analysis. The DBP concentrations of 15.1% sites exceeded the ERLs and only one site had the DEHP concentration exceeded environmental risk limits. The DBP risk quotient values of 11.3% (for algae), 3.8% (for crustaceans) and 43.4% (for fish) sites exceeded 1, and most of these sites are near to four major sources. These results might benefit the implementation of effective environmental management and remediation practices.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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Methods used to take into account and incorporate spatial autocorrelation and regional variation into regression analysis models of data that has spatial dependency, and also to provide information on the spatial relationships among the variables.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.