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Considering the future energy demand and pollution to the environment, biohydrogen, a biofuel, produced from biological sources have garnered increased attention. The present review emphasis the various techniques and methods employed to enumerate the microbial community and enhancement of hydrogen production by dark fermentation. Notably, molecular techniques such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR), fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), and next generation sequencing (NGS) have been extensively discussed on identifying the microbial population in hydrogen production. Further, challenges and merits of the molecular techniques have been elaborated.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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The application of genetic analyses and MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES to legal matters and crime analysis.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease. Included are such techniques as IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION of chromosomes for CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS; OLIGONUCLEOTIDE ARRAY SEQUENCE ANALYSIS of gene expression patterns in disease states; identification of pathogenic organisms by analysis of species specific DNA sequences; and detection of mutations with POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION.
Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
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Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...