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Ammonia (NH), as a dominant alkaline gas in the atmosphere, plays a vital role in Chinese urban haze formation process, but its source in urban areas of China is controversial. To identify the sources of urban NH in the semi-arid region of East Asia, real-time measurements of NH and NH of PM in the urban atmosphere of Xi'an, inland China during the winter and summer of 2017 were performed and their stable nitrogen isotope composition were analyzed. NH was 38.0 ± 9.4 μg/m in the summer, which is 1.5 times higher than that in the winter. Concentration of NH in both seasons well correlated with that of PAHs in PM and the mass ratio of (BbF + BeP + IP + BghiP) to the total PAHs, suggesting that fossil fuel combustion is an important source of NH in Xi'an. Moreover, diurnal variation pattern of NH was consistent with that of CO in the summer, peaking in the morning and evening rush hours, respectively, further indicating an importance of the contribution of traffic emissions to NH in the city. Based on the source apportionment by using isotope mixing model, we found that 66.4% and 62.5% of NH in the urban atmosphere were contributed by non-agricultural sources in the summer and winter, respectively. Our work revealed that non-agricultural sources dominate the atmospheric NH of Xi'an, where haze pollution is still severe, and suggested that emission controls of non-agricultural NH could be an effective way to mitigate the air pollution problem in the semi-arid region of East Asia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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Water pollution from a variety of diffuse sources carried over or through the ground and into water sources such as LAKES; RIVERS; WETLANDS; coastal waters; and GROUNDWATER. Such diffuse sources include roadways and parking lots (GASOLINE; HEAVY METALS; and motor oil), lawns or agricultural land (excess FERTILIZERS, livestock excrement, and PESTICIDES), landfill seepage, and construction sites (chemicals and trash used in construction processes).
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Beneficial microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) encapsulated in carrier material and applied to the environment for remediation and enhancement of agricultural productivity.