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Extracellular vesicles in the oligodendrocyte microenvironment.

08:00 EDT 21st March 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Extracellular vesicles in the oligodendrocyte microenvironment."

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) recently took centre stage as mediators of cellular crosstalk modulating the tissue microenvironment. Released by all types of neural cells, EVs may execute a broad spectrum of functions ranging from maintenance of neuronal homeostasis and regulation of neural plasticity to the spread of neurodegenerative agents. Myelinating oligodendrocytes and axons form a highly specialized functional entity that depends on intimate interactions within the oligodendrocyte-neuron niche. EVs released by oligodendrocytes are internalized by neurons in response to neuronal signals and exhibit neuroprotective properties but also may influence other cells present in the microenvironment. Here we discuss the role of EVs released by oligodendrocytes in regulating development, homeostatic maintenance and regeneration within the oligodendrocyte niche.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Neuroscience letters
ISSN: 1872-7972
Pages: 134915

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Membrane limited structures derived from cell membranes and cytoplasmic material, and released into EXTRACELLULAR SPACE. They circulate through the EXTRACELLULAR FLUID and through the peripheral blood in the MICROVASCULATURE where cells, much larger, cannot, thereby affecting a variety of intercellular communication processes.

Vesicles secreted from MULTIVESICULAR BODIES into the extracellular environment when the multivesicular bodies fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Multivesicular bodies are formed from ENDOSOMES when they accumulate vesicles (sometimes referred to as "intraluminal vesicles") from inward budding of the endosome membrane.

A glycosylated extracellular myelin protein found on the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is linked to the cell surface via a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE.

Endosomes containing intraluminal vesicles which are formed by the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) may fuse with other organelles such as LYSOSOMES or fuse back with the PLASMA MEMBRANE releasing their contents by EXOCYTOSIS. The MVB intraluminal vesicles released into the extracellular environment are known as EXOSOMES.

Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.

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